1.A.3.d Navigation

Last updated on 04 Dec 2014 08:38 (cf. Authors)

Short description

Under category 1.A.3.d - Navigation the emissions from both national and international navigation are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by1)
1.A.3.d Navigation T1 NS CS, D see sub-categories
consisting of / including source categories
1.A.3.d i International Navigation T1 NS CS, D, C no key source
1.A.3.d i (ii) International Inland Navigation Germany does not report emissions from this sub-category.
1.A.3.d ii National Navigation (Shipping) T1 NS CS no key source

1 T = key source by Trend / L = key source by Level

Navigation is broken down primarily into the categories "coastal and inland navigation" and "marine transport". All domestic navigation is diesel-powered, while heavy fuel oil is also used in the international shipping sector.


For Germany, emissions from navigation are calculated as the product of consumed fuels and country-specific emission factors and thus following a Tier 1 approach.

Activity Data

Total consumptions of diesel oil and heavy fuel oil have been taken from National Energy Balances (AGEB, 2013) [1]. For comparison (especially recent years), official mineral-oil data of the Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (BAFA, 2013) [2] and sales data of the Association of the German Petroleum Industry (MWV, 2013) [3] are used, too (see details on 1.A.3.d i & 1.A.3.d ii).

The majority of fuel quantities sold in this category are sold for sea navigation. Such sales have been increasing since 1998. Fuel consumption in coastal and inland-waterway navigation varies in keeping with waterway navigability. Since the mid-1990s, the overall trend for such consumption has been a decreasing one, as many ships have been refuelling abroad in order to take advantage of lower fuel prices. The abrupt decrease that occurred in 1994/1995 was due solely to a conversion in the Energy Balance, however.

The relevant activity rates are broken down by the categories “domestic” and “international”, taking account of sales – as listed in different Energy Balance lines – of different ship fuels subject to different taxation rates. By combining the pertinent fuel quantities with the various relevant EF, one can calculate and report domestic and international emissions separately.

Data on the consumption of biodiesel in national inland navigation is provided in the German Energy Balances from 2004 onward. In past years, the Energy Balances did not provide a solid time series regarding most recent years. Here, AD was estimated based on the prescribed shares of biodiesel to be added to diesel oil. With the Energy Balance 2009 this problem seems to be solved.

Table 1: Sources for 1.A.3.d activity data

International Maritime Navigation
since 1990 All Fuels AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 6: 'Hochseebunkerungen'
recent years / comparison All Fuels BAFA - Official oil data, table 6j: 'Bunker int. Schifffahrt'
Inland Waterways
through 1994 All Fuels AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 77: 'Küsten- und Binnenschifffahrt'
since 1995 All Fuels AGEB - National Energy Balance,line 64: 'Küsten- und Binnenschifffahrt'
comparison / recent years Diesel oil BAFA - Official oil data, table 7j: 'An die Binnenschifffahrt'
comparison / recent years Diesel oil MWV - Annual report, table: 'Sektoraler Verbrauch von Dieselkraftstoff'

Table 2: 2012 total fuel consumption in navigation, [TJ]

Sub-category 1.A.3.d i (ii) 1.A.3.d ii (i)
Fuel Diesel Oil Heavy Fuel Oil Diesel Oil Biodiesel
Consumption 17,849 87,667 13,123 857

For further information on AD (entire time series), EF, key sources, recalculations, projections etc., please see chapter on sub-category 1.A.3.d ii - National Navigation (Shipping).

1. AGEB, 2013: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/DE/daten-und-fakten/bilanzen-1990-2011/bilanzen-1990-2011.html, (Aufruf: 21.02.2014), Köln, Berlin.
2. BAFA, 2013: Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/energie/mineraloel_rohoel/amtliche_mineraloeldaten/index.html, (Aufruf: 27.11.2013), Eschborn.
3. MWV, 2013: Mineralölwirtschaftsverband (MWV, Association of the German Petroleum Industry): MWV Jahresbericht Mineralöl-Zahlen 2012 - URL: http://www.mwv.de/upload/Publikationen/dateien/MWV_Jahresbericht_2012_2YL0kh2z76m5tPF.pdf, (Aufruf: 22.02.2014), Berlin.
Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 License