1.B Fugitive Emissions from fuels

Last updated on 04 Dec 2014 08:38 (cf. Authors)

Short Description


During all stages of fuel production and use, from extraction of fossil fuels to their final use, fuel components can escape or be released as fugitive emissions.

While NMVOC, TSP and SOx are the most important emissions within the source category solid fuels, fugitive emissions of oil and natural gas include substantial amounts of NMVOC and SOx.

1.B - "Fugitive emission from fuels" consist of following sub-categories:


Solid Fuels

production and transformation from hard-coal and lignite


Liquid and gaseous Fuels

crude oil, liquid oil products, natural gas, town gas, refinery gas, venting and flaring



This chapter is included in "liquid and gaseous fuels".

Trends in emissions

pollutant source total emission trend key reasons of emission reduction
in 1990 [kt] in 2011 [kt] in 2012 [kt] since 1990 since last year
NMVOC 1.B.1.b, 1.B.2.a & 1.B.2.c 176,49 59,65 58,50 -67% -2% The decrease is due to implementation of the Technical Instruction on Air Quality Control (TA-Luft 2002), to deacreases in emissions from petrol storage and from fuelling of motor vehicles (1.B.2.a.v) - as a result of implementation of the 20th and 21st Ordinances on the Execution of the Federal Imission Control Act (BImSchV) - and to reduced petrol consumption.
TSP 1.B.1.b 146,11 10,39 10,78 -93% +4% The steep reduction especially at the beginning of the 1990s was due especially to closures in the eastern German industrial sector, to use of improved filters and most of all the decreasing production of lignite briquettes (1.B.1.b). The increase since last year is an result of a higher production of lignite.
thereof PM10 1.B.2.a 5,99
4,92 5,13 -18%
+4% see above
thereof PM2,5 1.B.2.a 1,36
0,99 1,01 -27%
+2% see above
SO2 1.B.1.b & 1.B.2 47,87 2,29 2,30 -95% +3% The sharp reductions in such emissions seen especially at the beginning of the 1990s were due especially to closures in the eastern German industrial sector, to use of improved filters and to switching from lignite to other fuels. In subsequent years, decreasing production of hard-coal coke (1.B.1.b) and improved filter technilogies in desulphurisation of natural gas (1.B.2.b.ii) had the largest effects on emissions.
CO 1.B.1.b & 1.B.2.b 29,74 8,98 9,12 -69% +2% Carbon monoxid has decreased primarily as a result of decreasing production of hard-coal (1.B.1.b) and discontinuation of city-gas delivieries via the public-gas-distribution network (1.B.2.b.iv).
NH3 1.B.1.b 0,60 ~0 ~0 -99% +1% The emissions almost stopped to occur in the early 1990s due to the discontinuation of the low-temperature lignite-coke production. Since then emissions has remained on a negligible low level resulting from cokery process of hard coal.
NOx 1.B.2.c 7,10 0,35 0,36 -95% +3% Emissions of nitrous oxide originate in flaring (1.B.2.c) in oil and gas production, and in gas processing. The shrinking emissions are mainly attributed to the implementation of modern technology, especially on flares.

Following chart provides emission trends for main pollutants in NFR 1.B. (click to enlarge):


Please refer to sub-categories for more details.

Proportional share of fugitive emissions concerning emissions of the energy sector and national total amounts

pollutant fugitive amount
in year 2012
share within the
energy sector
share within the
national inventory
NOx 0,4 kt 0,0 % 0,0 %
NMVOC 58,5 kt 22,1 % 6,1 %
SOx 2,3 kt 0,7 % 0,5 %
PM2.5 1,0 kt 1,3 % 0,9 %
PM10 5,1 kt 5,5 % 2,4 %
TSP 10,8 kt 9,6 % 3,4 %
CO 0,9 kt 0,0 % 0,0 %
PCDD/F 0,02 mg I-Teq5 0,0 % 0,0 %
B(a)P 40,0 kg 0,1 % 0,1 %
B(b)F 49,1 kg 58,2 % 58,2 %6
I(123cd)P 16,9 kg 49,0 % 49,0 %7
PAH (total) 452,1 kg 0,2 % 0,2 %

The following charts show the contribution of the main pollutants of the NFR sector 1.B for 1990 and 2012. Click any chart to enlarge.

Pollutant 1990 2012
Nitrogen dioxide
all nitrogen dioxide emissions occur in NFR sector 1.B.2.c - "Flaring"

Carbon monoxide CO1990.jpg CO2012.jpg
NMVOC NMVOC1990.jpg NMVOC2012.jpg
Sulphur dioxide SOx1990.jpg SOx2012.jpg
Particulate matter
all particulate matter emissions occur in NFR sector 1.B.1 - "Coal mining and handling"


Please refer to the Recalculation Chapter for explanations.

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