7. Agriculture (NFR sector 4)

Last updated on 04 Dec 2014 08:38 (cf. Authors)

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by1)
4 Agriculture see sub-categories
consisting of / including source categories
4.A Enteric Fermentation - - - -
4.B Manure Management see sub-categories
4.C Rice Cultivation - - - -
4.D Agricultural Soils see sub-categories
4.E Prescribed Burning of Savannas - - - -
4.F Field burning of agricultural wastes - - - -
4.G Other - - - -

Country specifics

No emissions occur under 4.A – Enteric Fermentation, 4.C – Rice Cultivation & 4.E. – Prescribed burning of Savannas.
4.G: Emissions of persistent organic pollutants (POP)were calculated for Lindane (Hexachlorcyclohexane, HCH)). The substance has been regulated and subsequently banned, the emission phased out in 1998 (see Rösemann et al., 2011 [12]).

Short description

Emissions occurring in the agricultural sector in Germany derive from manure management and agricultural soils.
The pollutants reported are ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM2.5,PM10).
Since Submission 2012, Germany does no longer report NOx emissions from biological N fixation (legumes) and crop residues as neither IPCC nor EMEP (2009) provide a methodology.
Furthermore, NMVOC emissions from agriculture were not reported.The methodology used in previous submissions has been evaluated as not adequate by international experts (see Haenel et al., 2014 [1]).
In 2012 the agricultural sector emitted 512.3 Gg of NH3 , 106.7 Gg of NOx, 6.1 Gg of PM2.5 and 38.9 Gg of PM10. The trend from 1990 onwards is shown in the graph below. The sharp decrease of NH3 emissions from 1990 to 1991 is due to a reduction of livestock population in the New Länder (former GDR) following the German reunification. For the years following 1991 a slightly decreasing trend can bee seen. The 21-year difference between 1991 and 2012 is only 10 Gg higher than the difference from 1990 to 1991.
As displayed in the diagram below, in 2012 93.9 % of Germany’s total NH3 emissions derived from the agricultural sector, while NOx contributed 8.4 % to the total NOx emissions of Germany. Regarding the emissions of PM2,5 and PM10 the agricultural sector contributed 5.5 % and 18.0 %, respectively, to the national emissions of PM.

Recalculations and reasons

(see 11.1 Recalculations)
In the following the most important recalculations will be addressed. Recalculations became necessary due to improvements in input data and methodologies (for details see Haenel et al., 2014 [1]).
The difference between the agricultural NH3emissions in submissions 2013 and 2014 occurs due to the following issues listed below:

  • Cattle: The data on N content of animal bodies has been harmonized. This leads to slightly different N excretion rates ..
  • Dairy cows: The modelling concept of the feed intake has been modified to set the intake of concentrates to zero for rather low milk yields. The impact on the emission results is marginal.
  • Fattening pigs: For the first time the results of the 2011 survey of the Federal Statistical Agency on the use of protein in pig feeding are used. This survey produced new data on N contents of feed as well as the frequencies of various phase-feeding concepts (single-phase, dual-phase, multi-phase feeding). To account for these data, the model had to be modified. In addition, expert judgment was used to estimate the development of the N reduced feeding (i. e. the phase feeding) since 1990. As a consequence of the new data on N contents, the new feeding model calculates lower N excretions and therefore also lower emissions of N species for all years since 1990.
  • Sows: The modelling concept used so far for N reduced feeding of sows is not applied any longer, as it overestimates the reduction of N input to be found in practice. As a consequence the emissions of N species increased.
  • Sheep: Due to actualisation of grazing data by the Federal Statistical Agency the grazing period of sheep has been extended. Therefore all emissions of sheep decreased except the NH3-emissions from grazing which increased.
  • Laying hens and pullets: Based on new data, initial weights and final weights have been updated for the years 2010 and 2011. This modification led to a marginal change of the emissions.
  • Broilers: The input data for the calculation of the national gross production of broiler meat has been updated for 2011 by the Federal Statistical Agency. The total amount of meat slightly increased, leading to a slight increase of emissions.
  • Turkeys: For turkeys the data on live weight and weight gain has been updated. As a consequence emissions slightly increased.

As to NO and PM emissions, there are slight differences between submissions 2012 and 2013 which are due to changes in animal husbandry emission calculations and/or input data addressed above.

Visual overview

Chart showing emission trends for main pollutants in NFR 4 - Agriculture:

Click to enlarge.

Specific QA/QC procedures for the agriculture sector

Numerous input data were checked for errors resulting from erroneous transfer between data sources and the tabular database used for emission calculations.
The German IEFs and other data used for the emission calculations were compared with EMEP default values and data of other countries (see Haenel et. al. (2014)[1]).
For submission 2014, methodological and data changes are documented in detail (see Haenel et. al. (2014)[1], Chapter 3.5.2).
Once emission calculations with the German inventory model GAS-EM are completed for a specific submission, activity data (AD) and implied emission factors (IEFs) are transferred to the CSE database (Central System of Emissions) to be used to calculate the respective emissions within the CSE. These CSE emission results are then cross-checked with the emission results obtained by GAS-EM.
By comparisons with the results of the previous-year calculations and plausibility checks, a comprehensive review of the emission calculations was carried out.

1. Haenel et. al. (2014): Calculations of gaseous and particulate emissions from German agriculture 1990-2012. Thünen Report 17.
2. Reidy B., Dämmgen U., Döhler H., Eurich-Menden B., Hutchings N.J., Luesink H.H., Menzi H., Misselbrook T.H., Monteny G.-J., Webb J. (2008): Comparison of models used for the calculation of national NH3 emission inventories from agriculture: liquid manure systems. Atmospheric Environment 42, 3452-3467.
3. Dämmgen U., Hutchings N.J. (2008): Emissions of gaseous nitrogen species from manure management - a new approach. Environmental Pollution 154, 488-497.
5. Dämmgen U., Erisman J.W. (2005): Emission, transmission, deposition and environmental effects of ammonia from agricultural sources. In: Kuczyński T., Dämmgen U., Webb J., Myczko (eds) Emissions from European Agriculture. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen. pp 97-112.
6. Weingarten, P. (1995): Das „Regionalisierte Agrar- und Umweltinformationssystem für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland“ (RAUMIS). Berichte über die Landwirtschaft Band 73, 272-302.
7. Henrichsmeyer, W.; Cypris, Ch.; Löhe, W.; Meuth, M.; Isermeyer F; Heinrich, I.; Schefski, A.; Neander, E.; Fasterding, F.;, Neumann, M.; Nieberg, H.( 1996): Entwicklung des gesamtdeutschen Agrarsektormodells RAUMIS96. Endbericht zum Kooperationsprojekt. Forschungsbericht für das BMELF (94 HS 021), Bonn, Braunschweig.
8. IPCC – Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (1996): 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Reference Manual (Volume 3).
11. NIR (2014): National Inventory Report 2014 for the German Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990-2012. Available in April 2014.
12. Rösemann C., Haenel H.-D., Poddey E., Dämmgen U., Döhler H., Eurich-Menden B., Laubach P., Dieterle M., Osterburg B. (2011): Calculations of gaseous and particulate emissions from German agriculture 1990-2009. vTI Agriculture and Forestry Research (Landbauforschung), Special Issue (Sonderheft) 342.
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