1.A.4.b.i Residential: Stationary Combustion

Last updated on 04 Dec 2014 08:38 (cf. Authors)

Short description


Under source category 1.A.4.b.i. - Other: Residential emissions from small residential combustion installations are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by1)
1.A.4.b i Residential: Stationary Combustion T2, T3 NS CS, D SOx (L/T), NOx (L/T), NMVOC (L), CO (L/T) - PM2.5, PM10 & TSP (L/T) - Pb (L), Cd (L) - PCDD/F (L), PAH (L/T), HCB (L/T)


Activity data

See 1.A.4. - Other: Stationary Combustion.

Emission factors

See 1.A.4. - Other: Stationary Combustion.

Table: Emission factors for domestic combustion installations

Fuel [kg/TJ] [mg/TJ] [µg/TJ]
Hard Coal 63 375 3386 65 18.5 17.6 15.7 60,000 20.8
Hard Coal Coke 41 450 6768 15 16.5 15.7 14.1 100,000 45.7
Hard Coal Briquettes 50 563 4875 184 265 252.8 227.3 100,000 20.2
Lignite Briquettes 87 96 2359 165 92 87.7 78.2 90,000 24.8
Natural Wood 73 7.6 2932 155 104.7 102.3 97.2 600,000 45.2
Light Heating Oil 42 59 14.5 1.7 0.88 0.88 0.88 4,000 2.2
Natural Gas 22 0.5 14.6 0.67 0.03 0.03 0.03 40 2.1

TSP and PM emission factors are to a large extend based on measurements without condensed compounds, according to CEN-TS 15883, annex I.
PAH measurement data contain the following individual substances: Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene, Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(j)fluoranthene, Benzo(ghi)perylene, Anthracene, Benzo(a)anthracene, Chrysene(+Trihenylene) and Dibenz(a,h)anthracene, as a specific part of US EPA.

Trend Discussion for Key Sources

The following charts give an overview and assistance for explaining dominant emission trends of selected pollutants.

Annual fluctuations of all fuel types in source category 1.A.4.b.i depend on heat demand subject to winter temperatures. Between 1990 and 2002 the fuel use changed considerably from coal & lignite to natural gas. The consumption of light heating oil decreased as well. As the activity data for light heating oil is based on the sold amount, it fluctuates due to fuel prices and changing storage amounts. In 2010 and 2012 fuel consumption was particularly high due to the cold winter. 2012 data are still preliminary.

Sulfur Oxides & Nitrogen Oxides - SOx & NOx

SO2 emissions decrease due to the fuel switch from coal (especially lignite with a high emission factor) to natural gas with a lower emission factor.
In contrast to SO2 emissions NOX emission trend is less influenced by fuel characteristics but more by combustion conditions. Therefore NOX emission values shows lower reduction. During the last years the use of firewood gain influence.

Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds & Carbon Monoxide - NMVOC & CO

Main driver of the NMVOC emission trend is the decreasing lignite consumption. In the residential sector the emission trend is also affected by the increasing use of firewood with high emission factors which levels off the emission reduction.
The explanation for decreasing carbon monoxide emissions is similar to the trend discussion for SO2 and NMVOC. Since 1990 the fuel use changed from solid fuels, which causes high CO-emissions, to gaseous fuels, which produce less CO emissions.

Particulate Matter - PM2.5 & PM10 & TSP

The emission trend for PM2.5, PM10, and TSP are also influenced severely by decreasing coal consumption in small combustion plants, particularly in the period from 1990 to 1994. Since 1995 the emission trend didn't change hardly. Increasing emissions in the last years are caused by the rising wood combustion in residential fire places and stoves.

Persistent Organic Pollutants

The main driver of the POP emission trend are coal and fuelwood. PCDD/F emissions from coal fired furnaces are declining but the effect is retarded by increasing wood consumption. The same influencing variables apply accordingly to the PAH emission trends. The emission trend of HCB shows a high dominance of emissions from wood-burning. Data source for HCB emission factors is the EMEP/Corinair inventory guidebook 2006. Insofar, emission factors are constant from 1990 to 2012. Furthermore, the difference between the EFs for coal and fuelwood is very big. Therefore, the emission trend depends solely on the development of fuelwood consumption. Regarding HCB emissions the inventory is incomplete. This is one of the reasons for the importance of emissions from small combustion plants. In 2010 and 2012 emissions are particularly high because of the cold winter. 2012 data are still preliminary.
It's known that in spite of the existing legislation, an unknown quantity of waste wood is illegally burnt. However, it's impossible to ascertain the fuel quantity, since the use of waste wood for heating purposes in small combustion plants it's illegal. Therefore all emission factors and emissions refer to the use of untreated wood.


Recalculations were necessary for the latest reference year (2011) due to the availability of the National Energy Balance. Germany has a federal structure which causes a time lack of the National Energy Balance. Therefore recalculations are always necessary.

For pollutant specific information on qualitative and quantitative impacts on 1990 and 2011 emission estimates see chapter 11. Recalculations.

Planned improvements

Currently, a study is planned to provide projections for small combustion plants.

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