1.A.3.b.i-iv Emissions From Fuel Combustion in RT

Last updated on 04 Dec 2014 08:38 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-categories 1.A.3.b i - iv the emissions from fuel combustion activities in road transport are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AR EF Key Source for (by3)
1.A.3.b i Passenger Cars T12, T3 NS CS NOx (L/T), NMVOC (L/T), CO (L/T), PM2.5 & PM10 (L/T)
1.A.3.b ii Light Duty Vehicles T3 NS CS NOx (L), PM2.5 (L/T), PM10 (T)
1.A.3.b iii Heavy Duty Vehicles T23, T3 NS CS NOx (L/T), PM2.5 (L/T), PM10 (T)
1.A.3.b iv Mopeds & Motorcycles T3 NS CS no key source

1 T1: only for natural gas, and lubricants where activity data exist only on tier1 level
2 T2: only for petroleum where activity data exist only on tier2 level
3 T = key source by Trend / L = key source by Level


Activity data

Specific consumption data for the different types of vehicles are generated within TREMOD [2]. - The following table gives an overview the amounts of fuels consumed by road transport vehicles in Germany in 2012.

Table 1: Fuel consumption 2012 by vehicle type, in [TJ]

Liquid Fuels Gaseous Fuels Biomass
Gasoline Diesel Oil LPG Natural Gas Bioethanol Biodiesel
Passenger cars 773,408 469,085 21,836 9,742 29,680 36,471
Light duty vehicles 6,557 84,332 - - 240 6,261
Heavy duty vehicles - 612,807 - - - 47,645
Trucks & Lorries - 565,938 - - - 44,001
Buses - 46,869 - - - 3,644
Two-Wheelers 12,587 - - - 483 -
Mopeds 2,798 - - - 107 -
Motorcycles 9,789 - - - 376 -
1.A.3.b TOTAL 792,257 1,166,224 21,836 9,742 30,403 90,673

For further details see main chapter 1.A.3.b - Road Transport as wells as the different sub-category chapters linked above.

Emission factors

The majority of emissions factors for exhaust emissions from road transport are taken from the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 3.1) [1] where they are provided on a tier3 level mostly and processed within the TREMOD software used by the party [2] . Therefore, it is not possible to display them in a clear and comprehendible table.

For heavy-metal exhaust-emissions other then lead from leaded gasoline, default emission factors from (EMEP/EEA 2013) [3] have been applied for the first time.

NOTE: Due to lack of better information, similar emission factors are applied to fossil diesel oil and biodiesel as well as fossil gasoline and bioethanol, respectively.

Trends of exhaust emissions from road transport vehicles

Trend of NOx emissions represent the changes in legislatory emission limits and the regarding implementation of mitigation technologies.

Trends for sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ammonia (NH3) exhaust emissions show charcteristics very different from those shown above.

Here, the strong dependence on increasing fuel qualities (sulphur content) leads to an cascaded downward trend of SO2 emissions, influenced only slightly by increases in fuel consumption and mileage.

Table 2 below provides the development of fuel sulphur contents over the years for Old (OGL) and New German Länder (NGL) and Germany (GER).

Covered Area Coverd Year(s) gasoline diesel oil
until 1988 500 ppm 6,000 ppm
1989-1990 500 ppm 6,000 ppm
until 1984 250 ppm 2,700 ppm
1985 250 ppm 2,500 ppm
1986 250 ppm 2,100 ppm
1987 250 ppm 2,100 ppm
1988 250 ppm 1,700 ppm
1989 250 ppm 1,700 ppm
1990 220 ppm 1,700 ppm
1991 220 ppm 1,300 ppm
1992 220 ppm 1,300 ppm
1993 220 ppm 1,300 ppm
1994 220 ppm 1,300 ppm
1995 180 ppm 1,300 ppm
1996 180 ppm 600 ppm
1997 180 ppm 400 ppm
1998-2000 70 ppm 300 ppm
2001 55 ppm 250 ppm
2002 25 ppm 40 ppm
since 2003 8 ppm 8 ppm

For ammonia emissions the increasing use of catalytic converters in gasoline driven cars in the 1990s lead to a steep increase whereas both the technical development of the converters and the ongoing shift from gasoline to diesel cars resulted in decreasing emissions in the following years.

Trends of NMVOC and CO emissions are influenced by the implementation of mitigation technologies.

As for all reported exhaust particulate matter emissions from mobile diesel vehicles, the party assumes that nearly all particles emitted are within the PM2.5 range, resulting in similar emission values for PM2.5, PM10, and TSP.

For further details and information on recalculations, uncertainty assessment etc. see main chapter 1.A.3.b - Road Transport as well as the different sub-category chapters linked above.


Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS 2009) [4]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors for all 1.A.3.b sub-categories were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

Besides the routine revision of the TREMOD model used, no further sector-specific improvements are planned.

1. INFRAS, 2011: Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport, version 3.1 (Handbuch Emissionsfaktoren des Straßenverkehrs 3.1) URL: http://www.hbefa.net/e/index.html - Dokumentation, Bern, January 2011
2. ifeu, 2013: Knörr, W. et al., IFEU - Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH: Fortschreibung des Daten- und Rechenmodells: Energieverbrauch und Schadstoffemissionen des motorisierten Verkehrs in Deutschland 1960-2030, sowie TREMOD 5.4, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Berlin.
3. EMEP/EEA 2013: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013
4. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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