1.A.2.f.ii Offroad Construction Vehicles

Last updated on 04 Dec 2014 08:38 (cf. Authors)

Short description

Under Sub-sector 1.A.2.f ii - Mobile Combustion in Manufacturing Industries and Construction emissions from Off-Road Construction Vehicles and Construction Machinery are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by1)
Mobile Combustion in Manufacturing Industries and Construction
1.A.2.f ii Offroad Construction Vehicles T1 NS CS PM2.5 (T), PM10 (T)

1 T = key source by Trend / L = key source by Level

Method

The emissions for the aforementioned areas are calculated as the product of fuel consumption and the relevant country-specific emission factors, keeping with a Tier-1 approach.

Activity data

Primary activity data (PAD) are taken from National Energy Balances (NEBs) line 67: 'Commercial, trade, services and other consumers' (AGEB, 2013) [((bicite 1))].

Following the deduction of energy inputs for military vehicles as provided in (BAFA 2013) [2], the remaining amounts of gasoline and diesel oil are apportioned onto off-road construction vehicles (NFR 1.A.2.f ii) and off-road agricultural vehicles (NFR 1.A.4.c ii) with a share of 42 per cent assumed for NFR 1.A.2.f ii (cf. NFR 1.A.4.c ii).

(1)
\begin{gather} AD_\text{ NFR 1.A.2.f ii} = 0.42 \cdot (PAD_\text{ NEB line 67} - AD_\text{ NFR 1.A.5.b}) \end{gather}

Table 1: Sources for 1.A.2.f ii activity data

through 1994 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 79: 'Haushalte und Kleinverbraucher insgesamt'
as of 1995 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 67: 'Gewerbe, Handel, Dienstleistungen u. übrige Verbraucher'

Table 2: Annual mobile fuel consumption in construction vehicles and machinery, [TJ]

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Diesel oil 46,991 47,513 40,033 41,228 40,850 41,076 40,286 40,536 40,043 41,121
Biodiesel NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO
Gasoline 2,816 3,017 3,018 3,017 3,109 3,135 3,110 3,110 3,110 3,110
Bioethanol NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Diesel oil 39,926 38,415 37,743 37,218 36,049 34,396 35,004 34,690 35,417 37,661
Biodiesel NO NO NO NO 310 752 1,020 1,549 1,751 2,594
Gasoline 3,110 3,095 3,109 3,109 3,112 3,064 3,090 3,090 3,053 1,868
Bioethanol NO NO NO NO 3 21 45 42 58 53
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Diesel Oil 37,178 38,109 37,625
Biodiesel 2,411 2,498 2,457
Gasoline 1,824 1,655 1,553
Bioethanol 70 68 69

italic: value recalculated due to newly implemented separation of biofuels (2004-2011) and revised NEB (2011)

Emission factors

The EF used are of very different quality (compare table below): Without better information, constant tier1 values derived from comparable sources (e.g. pre-euro1 heavy duty vehicles road transport) are used for NH3 from diesel oil and gasoline. The tier1 values used for PAH1-4 and PCDD/F are derived from a study carried out by (Rentz et al., 2008) [4] for the German Federal Environment Agency.

For NOx, NMVOC, SO2, CO, and PM, annually changing tier2 values computed within TREMOD-MM (ifeu, 2010) [3] are used, representing the development of fuel qualities and mitigation technologies.

In addition, starting with the current submission, EF for exhaust heavy metals* and B[a]P emission have been derived from (EMEP/EEA, 2013) [5], whereas for all other PAHs and the PAH total, no emission factors are available at present.
* Exception: For lead (Pb) from leaded gasoline and corresponding TSP emissions, annually country-specific EFs are applied representing the fade-out of leaded gasoline in 1997.

Note: As no such specific EF are available for biofuels, the values used for diesel oil and gasoline are applied to biodiesel and bioethanol, respectively.

Table 3: (I)EFs used for 2012 emission estimates

Main Pollutants Particulate Matter Heavy Metals Persistent Organis Pollutants
NEC Other PM2.5 ≤ PM10 ≤ TSP Main HM1,2 Other HM2 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Dioxins & Furans
Pollutant NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM2.5 PM10 TSP Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[1,2,3-cd]P ∑PAH PCDD/F
kg/TJ kg/TJ g/TJ mg/TJ g I-Teq
Diesel fuels 4.00 61 441 0.37 386 45 45 45 NE 0.23 NE NE 1.16 40 1.63 0.23 23 6982 NE NE NE 9303 1.623
Gasoline fuels 4.00 746 73 0.18 4,010 NE NE NE 0.001 0.23 NE NE 1.15 39 1.61 0.23 23 9192 NE NE NE NE 2.763

1 leaded gasoline banned in 1997
2 tier1 defaults from EMEP/EEA GB 2013 [5]
3 tier1 values derived from (Rentz et al., 2008) [4]

tier1 values used for PAH1-4 and PCDD/F are derived from a study carried out by (Rentz et al., 2008) [4]

Trend discussion for Key Categories

NFR 1.A.2.f ii - Mobile Combustion in Manufacturing Industries and Construction is a key source for emissions of

  • PM2.5 and PM10 both regarding the emissions' trends.

Particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

PM emissions from NFR 1.A.2.f ii result from two effects: For the years 1990 to 1997, TSP emissions from leaded gasoline are reported together with TSP emissions from the combustion of diesel oil. From 1995 onwards, PM2.5 and PM10 emissions from diesel combustion are provided as well. Therefore, over-all TSP emissions are marginally (0.1-0.5%) higher than PM2.5 and PM10 for the years 1995 to 1997.

As emissions of particulate matter are related directly with the consumption of diesel oil, the over-all trend of these emissions follows the decreasing trend of annual diesel oil consumption. As for all reported exhaust PM emissions from mobile diesel vehicles the party assumes that nearly all particles emitted are within the PM2.5 range, resulting in similar emission values for PM2.5, PM10, and TSP.

In addition, the decrease was and still is amplified by the expanding use of particle filters especially to eliminate soot emissions.

Recalculations

Due to the newly implemented separate reporting of biofuels, activity data (diesel oil and gasoline) have been revised for all years as of 2004.

NOTE: As mentioned above, activity data used for this sector is estimated from NEB line 67: 'Commercial, trade, services and other consumers', also including deliveries to households and military facilities [1]. Here, for NFR 1.A.5.b the newly implemented separate reporting of biofuels resulted in decreased amounts of fossil diesel oil and gasoline. Given the estimation procedure described above, this led to slightly increased figures for the amounts 2004-2010 of diesel oil and gasoline used in NFR 1.A.2.f ii.

The stronger changes in 2011 AD result from the rountine revision of the latest National Energy Balance.

Table 4: Recalculations of annual fuel consumption data, in [TJ]

1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Diesel oil
Submission 2014 46,991 41,076 39,926 38,415 37,743 37,218 36,049 34,396 35,004 34,690 35,417 37,661 37,178 38,109
Submission 2013 46,991 41,076 39,926 38,415 37,743 37,218 36,046 34,365 34,981 34,656 35,392 37,632 37,151 37,132
absolute change 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 3,51 31,01 23,00 34,43 25,09 29,26 27,17 976,14
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.01% 0.09% 0.07% 0.10% 0.07% 0.08% 0.07% 2.63%
Gasoline
Submission 2014 2,816 3,135 3,110 3,095 3,109 3,109 3,112 3,064 3,090 3,090 3,053 1,868 1,824 1,655
Submission 2013 2,816 3,135 3,110 3,095 3,109 3,109 3,110 3,044 3,054 3,069 3,013 1,809 1,745 1,735
absolute change 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 2,45 19,67 36,06 20,94 39,79 58,88 78,89 -79,18
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.08% 0.65% 1.18% 0.68% 1.32% 3.25% 4.52% -4.56%

Compared to the latest submissions, all emissions factors used remain unchanged.
In addition, the implementation of tier1 EF for exhaust heavy metal and B[a]P emissions from (EMEP/EEA, 2013) [5] resulted in new emission estimates for this sector.

For information on the impacts on 1990 and 2011 emission estimates, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 11.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS 2009) [6]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

As this improvement had to be postponed in submission 2014, particulate matter emissions from gasoline combustion will be provided for the first time with submission 2015, based on EF from (EMEP/EEA 2013) [5].

In addition, in order to consolidate the applied emission factors, a broad revision of the reporting of B[a]P and PAH 1-4 emissions is planned for all off-road mobile sources.

FAQs

Why are similar EF applied for estimating exhaust heavy metal emissions from both fossil and biofuels?

The EF provided in (EMEP/EEA 2013) [5] represent summatory values for (i) the fuel's and (ii) the lubricant's heavy-metal content as well as (iii) engine wear. Here, there might be no heavy metal contained the biofuels. But since the specific shares of (i), (ii) and (iii) cannot be separated, and since the contributions of lubricant and engine wear might be dominant, the same emission factors are applied to biodiesel and bioethanol.


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2013: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/DE/daten-und-fakten/bilanzen-1990-2011/bilanzen-1990-2011.html, (Aufruf: 21.02.2014), Köln, Berlin.
2. BAFA, 2013: Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/energie/mineraloel_rohoel/amtliche_mineraloeldaten/index.html, (Aufruf: 28.11.2013), Eschborn.
3. ifeu, 2009: Helms, H., Lambrecht, U., Knörr, W. , IFEU - Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH: Aktualisierung des Modells TREMOD-Mobile Machinery, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 360 16 018, Heidelberg, Korrigendum 11.02.2010.
4. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
5. EMEP/EEA 2013: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013
6. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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