1.A.3.d.ii National Navigation (Shipping)

Last updated on 04 Dec 2014 08:38 (cf. Authors)

Short description

Under category 1.A.3.d ii - National Navigation emissions from national navigation are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by1)
1.A.3.d ii National Navigation (Shipping) T1 NS CS, D no key source

1 T = key source by Trend / L = key source by Level

Since there is no data available on ship movements (origin, destination) all inland navigation is supposed to be domestic. (See also: origin of activity data)

Method

For Germany, emissions from navigation are calculated as the product of consumed fuels and country-specific emission factors and thus following a tier 1 approach.

Activity data

The total consumptions of diesel oil and biodiesel have been taken from the National Energy Balances (AGEB, 2013) [1]. For comparison (especially recent years), official mineral-oil data of the Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (BAFA, 2013) [2] and sales data of the Association of the German Petroleum Industry (MWV, 2013) [3] are used, too.

Data on the consumption of biodiesel is provided in the German Energy Balances from 2004 onward. In past years, the Energy Balances did not provide a solid time series regarding most recent years. Here, AD was estimated based on the prescribed shares of biodiesel to be added to diesel oil. With the Energy Balance 2009 this problem seems to be solved.

Table 1: Sources for 1.A.3.d ii activity data

through 1994 All Fuels AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 77: 'Küsten- und Binnenschifffahrt'
since 1995 All Fuels AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 64: 'Küsten- und Binnenschifffahrt'
comparison / recent years Diesel oil BAFA - Official oil data, table 7j, column: 'An die Binnenschifffahrt'
comparison / recent years Diesel oil MWV - Annnual report, table: 'Sektoraler Verbrauch von Dieselkraftstoff'

Table 2: Annual fuel consumption 1990-2012, [TJ]

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Diesel Oil 27,710 27,972 29,849 30,501 29,814 23,562 21,643 17,119 15,689 12,786
Biodiesel NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Diesel Oil 11,864 11,434 9,976 10,406 11,625 12,851 11,193 11,167 10,167 11,111
Biodiesel NO NO NO NO 100 281 326 499 503 765
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Diesel Oil 11,182 12,050 13,123
Biodiesel 725 790 857

italic: recalculated against submission 2013

Emission factors

The EF used for emission estimations in sector 1.A.3.d ii - National Navigation (Shipping) are of very different quality: For NOx, NMVOC, CO, SO2, and PM annually changing tier2 values computed within the TREMOD model are used, representing the development of German railway fleet, fuel quality and mitigation technologies. On the other hand, constant tier1 EF are used for NH3, PAHs & PCDD/F (EF from UBA study) as well as all heavy metals, HCB and PCBs (EF from EMEP Guidebook).

Table 3: (I)EF values used for 2012 estimates

Main Pollutants Particulate Matter Heavy Metals Persistent Organis Pollutants
NEC Other PM2.5 ≤ PM10 ≤ TSP Main HM5 Other HM5 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Dioxins & Furans 4 Hexachlo- robenzene Polychlorinated biphenyls
NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM2.5 PM10 TSP Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F, B[k]F, I[1,2,3-cd]P ∑PAH PCDD/F HCB 2 PCBs 2
kg/TJ kg/TJ g/TJ mg/TJ µg/TJ mg/TJ
(I)EF1 0.402 97 1,279 0.47 237 423,4 424 424 NE 0.23 NE NE 1.16 40 1.63 0.23 23 6985 IE in ∑PAH 9306 936 1.866 8.856

1 due to lack of better information: similar EF are applied for fossil diesel oil and biodiesel
2 country-specific tier1 value from TREMOD [4]
3 country-specific, annual tier2 value from TREMOD [4]
4 EF(PM2.5) also applied for PM10 and TSP (assumption: > 99% of TSP from diesel oil combustion consists of PM2.5)
5 tier1 defaults from EMEP/EEA GB 2013 [6]
6 tier1 values derived from (Rentz et al., 2008) [5]

Trend discussion for Key Sources

NFR 1.A.3.d ii - National Navigation (Shipping) is no key source.

All emissions reported for NFR 1.A.3.d ii - National Navigation correlate with the annual fuel consumption shown above.

Ammonia (NH3), Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon monoxide (CO)

sulphur dioxide (SO2)

Regarding SO2 emissions, the additional impact of sulphur content legislation is visible especially after 2010.

Particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

As for all reported exhaust PM emissions from mobile diesel vehicles, the inventory compiler assumes that nearly all particles emitted are within the PM2.5 range, resulting in similar emission values for PM2.5, PM10, and TSP.

Recalculations

Compared to submission 2013, emission estimates had to be racalculated due to corrected 2011 activity data as well as revised or newly implemented emission factors.

Given the changes in NEB activity data for diesel oil, the annual amounts of blended biodiesel were revised accordingly within TREMOD.

Table 4: Revised consumption data 2011 from final NEB 2011, in [TJ]

Diesel oil Biodiesel
Submission 2014 12,050 790
Submission 2013 10,379 684
absolute change 1,671 106
relative change 16.10% 15.45%

Compared to submission 2013, several changes occured regarding the applied emission factors:

Firstly, due to the routine revision of the NEB 2011 and the TREMOD model [4], tier2 emission factors for 2011 changed slightly.

Secondly, with respect to the engines and fuels used in German national inland navigation, the tier1 default emission factors for heavy-metal exhaust emissions have been revised broadly. As the EMEP Guidebook does not provide such emission factors for diesel oil used in inland navigation, EFs for marine navigation were used until submission 2013. Given the significant differences between marine and inland navigation (engines, fuel qaulity etc.), the inventory compiler decided to apply the corresponding EFs provided for railways instead. For diesel oil alone, this resulted in slightly lowered heavy-metal emissions.

In addition, similar tier1 default emission factors for heavy-metal exhaust emissions have been applied for biodiesel for the first time. Here, in former submissions, no such emissions were estimated, assuming that biofuels do not contain any heavy metals. But following information regarding the corresponding EF for road transport provided in (EMEP/EEA 2013) [6], these EF represent summatory values for (i) the fuel's and (ii) the lubricant's heavy-metal content as well as (iii) engine wear.

"…With regard to the emission of all other heavy metal species, as well as trace lead content of unleaded gasoline, the fuel metal content factors provided (µg/kg) are assumed to include fuel and lubricant content and engine wear…"

Of course, there still should be no heavy metal contained the biofuels. But since the specific shares of (i), (ii) and (iii) cannot be separated, and since the contributions of lubricant and engine wear might be dominant, the same emission factors are applied now to biodiesel and bioethanol here, resulting in increased HM emissions from biodiesel.

For information on the impacts on 1990 and 2011 emission estimates, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 11.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS 2009) [7]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors for all 1.A.3.b sub-categories were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

At the moment, a research project investigates the usability and availability of ship specific engine and movement data in order to fundamentally revise the inventory for Maritime Navigation with results possibly influencing sub-category 1.A.3.d.ii as well.

In addition, in order to consolidate the applied emission factors, a broad revision of the reporting of B[a]P and PAH 1-4 emissions is planned for all off-road mobile sources.

FAQs

Why are similar EF applied for estimating exhaust heavy metal emissions from both fossil and biofuels?

The EF provided in (EMEP/EEA 2013) [6] represent summatory values for (i) the fuel's and (ii) the lubricant's heavy-metal content as well as (iii) engine wear. Here, there might be no heavy metal contained the biofuels. But since the specific shares of (i), (ii) and (iii) cannot be separated, and since the contributions of lubricant and engine wear might be dominant, the same emission factors are applied to biodiesel and bioethanol.


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2013: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/DE/daten-und-fakten/bilanzen-1990-2011/bilanzen-1990-2011.html, (Aufruf: 21.02.2014), Köln, Berlin.
2. BAFA, 2013: Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/energie/mineraloel_rohoel/amtliche_mineraloeldaten/index.html, (Aufruf: 27.11.2013), Eschborn.
3. MWV, 2013: Mineralölwirtschaftsverband (MWV, Association of the German Petroleum Industry): MWV Jahresbericht Mineralöl-Zahlen 2012 - URL: http://www.mwv.de/upload/Publikationen/dateien/MWV_Jahresbericht_2012_2YL0kh2z76m5tPF.pdf, (Aufruf: 22.02.2014), Berlin.
4. ifeu, 2013: Knörr, W. et al., IFEU - Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH: Fortschreibung des Daten- und Rechenmodells: Energieverbrauch und Schadstoffemissionen des motorisierten Verkehrs in Deutschland 1960-2030, sowie TREMOD 5.4, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Berlin.
5. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
6. EMEP/EEA 2013: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013
7. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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