4.B Manure Management

Last updated on 04 Dec 2014 08:38 (cf. Authors)

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by)
4.B Manure Management
consisting of / including source categories
4.B 1a & 1b Cattle T3 (NH3), T2 (NOx), T1 (TSP, PM) NS, RS CS (NH3, NOx), D (PM) NH3 (L/T)
4.B 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Buffalo, Sheep, Goats, Horses, Mules and Asses T2 (NH3), T1 (NH3, NOx, PM) NS CS (NH3,NOx), D (PM) -
4.B 8 Swine T3 (NH3), T2 (NOx), T1 (TSP, PM) NS, RS CS (NH3, NOx), D (PM) NH3 (L/T), TSP (L), PM10 (L)
4.B 9a, 9b, 9c, 9d Poultry T2 (NH3, NOx), T1 (PM) NS, RS CS (NH3, NOx), D (PM) NH3 (T)
Kuhstall.png

Country specifics

In 2012, NH3 emissions from sector 4.B (manure management) derived up to 85.4 % from total agricultural emissions, which is equal to ~ 437 Gg NH3. Within those emissions 61.7 % originate from cattle manure (~ 270 Gg), 24 % from pig manure (ca. 105 Gg), and 11.5 % from poultry manure (~ 50.5 Gg). The impact of anaerobic digestion of slurry on the emission calculations is considered and yields in a reduction of NH3 emissions from animal husbandry of 3.7 Gg in 2012. The reduction effect is mainly caused by a relatively high frequency of gastight storage of digested slurry. (For details see Haenel et al., 2014, [1]).
NOx emissions from sector 4 B (manure management) contribute only 1.8 % (~ 1.9 Gg) to the total agricultural NOx emissions. They are calculated proportionally to N2O emissions. , see Haenel et al., 2014, [1]).
NMVOC emissions from Agriculture are not reported since Submission 2012 as the methodology used in previous submissions has been evaluated as not adequate by international experts (see Haenel et al., 2014 [1]).

Activity data for all pollutants

The Federal Statistical Agency and the Statistical Agencies of the federal states carry out surveys in order to collect, along with other data, the head counts of animals. In general the results of these surveys are used for emission calculation, for details see Haenel et. al. (2014) [1]).
The animal population figures the actual inventory is based on are presented in Table 1. After the German reunification (1990) animal livestock decreased. The head counts for cattle, swine, horses, sheep and goats decreased between 2005 and 2010 while in 2011 and 2012 the number of dairy cattle and pigs slightly increased. The total poultry population strongly increased since 2005 due to higher numbers of broilers and turkeys in 2011. As in 2012 there was no survey collecting animal population data of poultry, horses, mules and asses and goats, the respective 2011 animal population data were used also for 2012. Data for each animal category for the whole time series from 1990 until 2012 can be found in the National Inventory Report (NIR 2014 [11]) in Table 144.

Table 1: Population of animals

Population of animals (in 1.000)
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012
dairy cattle 6,354.5 5,229.2 4,569.8 4,236.4 4,183.1 4,190.1 4,190.5
other cattle 13,133.4 10,661.2 9,968.3 8,799.2 8,626.4 8,337.7 8,316.3
buffalo NO NO 0.6 1.2 2.4 2.7 2.8
mules and asses 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5
horses 491.0 625.6 491.0 499.9 461.8 461.8 461.8
sheep 3,266.1 2,990.7 2,743.3 2,643.1 2,088.5 1,660.1 1,643.4
goats 90.0 100.0 140.0 170.0 149.9 149.9 149.9
swine 26,502.5 20,387.3 21,767.7 22,742.8 22,244.4 22,787.8 23,648.2
laying hens 53,450.5 45,317.3 44,225.6 38,203.9 35,314.2 35,314.2 35,314.2
broilers 35,393.0 42,025.8 50,359.9 56,762.6 67,428.2 70,556.3 70,556.3
turkeys 5,029.2 6,742.0 8,893.1 10,611.0 11,344.0 11,494.6 11,494.6
pullets 17,210.8 14,592.0 14,240.5 12,301.5 11,371.0 11,371.0 11,371.0
ducks 2,013.7 1,933.7 2,055.7 2,352.3 3,164.3 3,346.5 3,346.5
geese 781.5 617.0 404.8 329.7 278.1 261.7 261.7

Additional data

To calculate emissions in accordance with a Tier-2 or Tier 3 method, data on animal performance (animal weight, weight gain, milk yield, milk protein content, milk fat content, numbers of births, numbers of eggs and weights of eggs) and on the relevant feeding details (phase feeding, feed components, protein and energy content, digestibility and feed efficiency) are required. To divide officially recorded total numbers of turkeys into roosters and hens, one must know the applicable sex ratio.
For the most part, such data is not available from official statistics and was obtained from the open literature, from association publications, from regulations for agricultural consulting in Germany and from expert judgements.
Up to 1999, frequency distributions of feeding strategies, husbandry systems (shares of pasturing/stabling; shares for various housing methods), storage types as well as techniques of farm manure spreading were obtained with the help of the RAUMIS agricultural sector model (Regionalisiertes Agrar- und UmweltInformationsystem für Deutschland; Regionalised agricultural and environmental information system for Germany). RAUMIS has been developed and is operated by the Institute of Rural Studies of the Thünen Institut (Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries). For an introduction to RAUMIS see WEINGARTEN (1995 [6]); a detailed description is provided in HENRICHSMEYER et al. (1996 [7]).
An update of the RAUMIS data was not possible before 2012 when the results of the 2010 official agricultural census and the simultaneous survey of agricultural production methods (Landwirtschaftliche Zählung 2010, Statistisches Bundesamt) as well as the 2011 survey on manure application practices (Erhebung über Wirtschaftsdüngerausbringung, Statistisches Bundesamt) became available. For details see Haenel et al. (2014) [1].
The gaps between the latest RAUMIS data (1999) and the new data were closed by linear interpolation on district level. For 2011 and 2012 the 2010 data was kept, with the exception that for 2012 it was assumed that liquid manure applied to bare soil was incorporated within 4 hours. The reason is a specification of the administrative instructions of the German Federal States for implementing the German Fertilization Ordinance in 2011.

NH3 & NOx

Methodology

N in manure management

N excretion

In order to determine NH3 and NOx emissions from manure management of a specific animal category the individual N excretion rate must be known. While default exrection rates are provided by IPCC Guidelines, the German agricultural emission inventory uses N mass balances to calculate the N excretions of almost all animal categories to be reported. The calculation of N excretion with the help of a N mass balance considers N intake with feed, N retention due to growth, N seceded with milk & eggs, and N in the offspring produced. Table 2 presents the mean N excretions. Data for the entire time series 1990-2012 can be found in the National Inventory Report (NIR 2014 [11]) in Table 145. For more details see Haenel et. al. (2014) [1].

Table 2: Mean N excretions

Mean N excretions in kg/place and year
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012
dairy cattle 97.5 103.1 108.6 113.3 115.3 116.6 116.9
other cattle 41.8 43.8 44.9 44.7 44.5 44.4 44.2
buffalo NO NO 82.0 82.0 82.0 82.0 82.0
mules and asses 33.4 33.4 33.4 33.4 33.4 33.4 33.4
horses 48.4 48.3 49.2 49.1 49.0 49.0 49.0
sheep 7.7 7.7 7.8 7.8 8.2 8.4 8.4
goats 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0
swine 11.1 11.6 11.6 11.7 11.6 11.3 11.3
laying hens 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9
broilers 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6
turkeys 1.8 1.8 1.8 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1
pullets 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
ducks 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
geese 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

N mass flow and emission assessment for mammals

The calculation of the emissions of NH3, N2O, NOx and N2 from German animal husbandry is based on the so-called N mass flow approach. This method reconciles the requirements of both the Atmospheric Emission Inventory Guidebook for NH3 emissions and the IPCC guidelines for greenhouse gas emissions (Dämmgen and Hutchings (2008) [3]). According to the N mass flow approach the N flow within the manure management system is treated as depicted in the figure below. In Europe, this approach is also applied in Denmark, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Switzerland. In spite of national peculiarities, a comparison of the national solutions showed identical results as long as standardised data sets for the input variables were used (Reidy et al. (2008) [2]).The approach differentiates between N excreted with faeces and urine and two fractions of N.

  • Norg: organic nitrogen is the fraction that is undigested N in the feed and excreted with faeces;
  • TAN (total ammoniacal nitrogen) is the fraction of N that was metabolised and is excreted with urine
N_flow_model.jpg
N flows in an animal subcategory. Mammals

m: mass from which emissions may occur. Narrow broken arrows: TAN (total ammoniacal nitrogen); narrow continuous arrows: organic N. The horizontal arrows denote the process of immobilisation in systems with bedding occurring in the house, and the process of mineralisation during storage, which occurs in any case. Broad hatched arrows denote emissions assigned to manure management: E emissions of N species (Eyard NH3 emissions from yards; Ehouse NH3 emissions from house; Estorage NH3, N2O, NOx and N2 emissions from storage; Eapplic NH3 emissions during and after spreading. Broad open arrows mark emissions from soils: Egraz NH3, N2O, NOx and N2 emissions during and after grazing; Ereturned N2O, NOx and N2 emissions from soil resulting from manure input.

The figure allows tracing of the pathways of the two N fractions after excretion. The various locations where excretion may take place are considered. The partial mass flows down to the input to soil are depicted. During storage both fractions, Norg and TAN, react to form the respective other fraction. Both the way and the amount of such transformations may be influenced by manure treatment processes.
Whenever NH3 is emitted, the formation is related to the amount of the reactive TAN fraction. NOx emissions (i. e. NO emissions) are calculated proportionally to the N2O emissions. The latter are related to the total amount of N available (Norg + TAN). Note that the N2O, NOx and N2 emissions from the various storage systems include the respective emissions from the related housing systems.

N mass flow model for birds

Birds excrete N in the form of undigested organic N and in uric acid (uric acid nitrogen, UAN). The latter is hydrolised to form ammonium carbonate (see Dämmgen and Erisman (2005) [5]). Thus, in principle, three fractions of N have to be traced, as shown in the figure below.

N_flow_model_birds.jpg

N flows in an animal subcategory. Birds.

m: mass from which emissions may occur. Narrow broken arrows: TAN; narrow broken and dotted line: UAN; narrow continuous arrows: organic N. The horizontal arrows denote the process of immobilisation in systems with bedding occurring in the house, and the process of mineralisation during storage, which occurs in any case. Broad hatched arrows denote emissions assigned to manure management: E emissions of N species (Eyard NH3 emissions from yards; Ehouse NH3 emissions from house; Estorage NH3, N2O, NOx and N2 emissions from storage; Eapplic NH3 emissions during and after spreading. Broad open arrows mark emissions from soils: Egraz NH3, N2O, NOx and N2 emissions during and after grazing; Ereturned N2O, NOx and N2 emissions from soil resulting from manure input.

At present, a similar treatment of TAN as applied for mammals is impossible for birds, as the hydrolysis of uric acid producing ammonium carbonate occurs outside the birds’ bodies. In particular, it is difficult to model the influence of humidity on this process. Hence, the inventory assumes that UAN excreted can completely be considered TAN.

Air scrubber systems in swine husbandry

The inventory considers the effect of air scrubbing facilities in pig production. Based on KTBL data, 80 % of the NH3 emissions during housing are removed if animal places are equipped with air scrubbers. For PM10 and PM2.5 the dust removal rates are set to 90 % and 70 %, respectively. In 2012 4.3 % of all pig places were equipped with air scrubbers.. For details see Haenel et al., 2014, [1]).

Anaerobic digestion of slurry

The inventory calculates NH3 emissions from the management of the residues of anaerobic slurry digestion, i. e. from storage and spreading. It is assumed that no emissions occur from the digester. Consistently with the calculation of CH4 emissions according to IPCC (1996) (for details see Haenel et al., 2014, [1]),), the calculation of NH3 emissions considers two different types of residue storage, i. e. gastight storage and open tanks.
In the inventory, the spreading of residues is treated separately from the spreading of untreated slurry as the frequencies of spreading techniques and durations of incorporation are different for untreated and digested slurry (for the frequency data see Haenel et al., 2014, [1]),)).

Emission Factors

Application of the N mass flow approach requires detailed emission factors for NH3, N2O, NOx and N2 describing the emissions from the various housing and storage systems as well as the various manure application techniques.
In general, the detailed NH3, emission factors are related to the amount of TAN available at the various stages of the N flow. These NH3, emission factors are mainly country specific but are also taken from EMEP (2009) [10]. As no specific NH3 emission factors are known for the application of digested slurry, the emission factors for untreated slurry were adopted.
The detailed emission factors for N2O, NOx and N2 relate to the amount of N available which is N excreted plus (in case of solid manure systems) N input with bedding material. The N2O, emission factors are taken from IPCC (2006) [4], except for the emission factor for solid manure systems which is country specific. The emission factors for NOx and N2 are approximated as proportional to the N2O emission factors. This proportionality is also applied to anaerobic digestion of slurry, where the N2O emission factor is provided by IPCC (1996). Note that the inventory model calculates NO rather than NOx. The NO emissions are then converted to NOx emissions by multiplying with 46/30 which means a transformation into NO2. Equivalently, this conversion can also be applied to the emission factors as is shown in Table 3.
For a detailed description of the emission factors see Haenel et al. (2014) [1].

Another type of emission factor is the implied emission factor (IEF) which can be obtained from the N mass flow approach. The implied emission factor is defined as the ratio of the total emission from an animal category to the respective number of animals. Table 3 shows the implied emission factors of NH3 and NOx for the various animal categories

Table 3: IEF for NH3 & NOx

Implied emission factors for NH3 & NOx
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012
animal NH3 in kg/animal place
dairy cattle 30.7 33.2 34.5 35.6 35.8 36.0 35.2
other cattle 15.4 15.0 15.1 15.2 14.9 14.9 14.7
buffalo NO NO 29.5 29.5 29.5 29.5 29.5
mules and asses 13.1 13.1 13.1 13.1 13.1 13.1 13.1
horses 18.9 18.9 19.2 19.2 19.1 19.1 19.1
sheep 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6
goats 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
swine 5.3 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.7 4.5 4.4
laying hens 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
broilers 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3
turkeys 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2
pullets 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
ducks 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
geese 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
NOx converted in kg NO2/animal place
dairy cattle 0.17000 0.16000 0.16000 0.17000 0.16000 0.16000 0.15000
other cattle 0.07500 0.07900 0.08200 0.08500 0.08900 0.08900 0.08900
buffalo NO NO 0.20000 0.20000 0.20000 0.20000 0.20000
mules and asses 0.14000 0.14000 0.14000 0.14000 0.14000 0.14000 0.14000
horses 0.20000 0.20000 0.20000 0.20000 0.20000 0.20000 0.20000
sheep 0.01600 0.01600 0.01600 0.01600 0.01700 0.01700 0.01700
goats 0.03300 0.03300 0.03300 0.03300 0.03300 0.03300 0.03300
swine 0.01400 0.01400 0.01400 0.01500 0.01500 0.01400 0.01400
laying hens 0.00026 0.00026 0.00024 0.00027 0.00028 0.00028 0.00028
broilers 0.00016 0.00014 0.00017 0.00018 0.00020 0.00021 0.00021
turkeys 0.00059 0.00059 0.00060 0.00066 0.00065 0.00065 0.00070
pullets 0.00012 0.00010 0.00010 0.00010 0.00010 0.00010 0.00010
ducks 0.00017 0.00017 0.00017 0.00017 0.00017 0.00017 0.00017
geese 0.00018 0.00018 0.00018 0.00018 0.00018 0.00018 0.00018

PM2,5 & PM10

in 2012, PM2,5 emissions from the agricultural sector derive up to 88.3 % from animal manure. Within those emissions 52.4 % originate from cattle manure, 25.9 % from pig manure, and 20.9 % from poultry manure.
In 2012, PM10 emissions from the agricultural sector derive up to 52.2 % from animal manure. Within those emissions 21.5 % originate from cattle manure, 41.7 % from pig manure, and 36.4 % from poultry manure.

Method

EMEP(2009)-4B-25[10]) provides a Tier 2 methodology to assess the emissions of PM10 and PM2,5 from animal housing which was adopted. In addition, air scrubber systems in swine husbandry are considered. However, EMEP(2009)-4B-30[10]) states that the emission factors are a first estimate only, thus the calculations in this inventory provide only a first estimate of particulate matter from animal husbandry.

Activity data

Please see table 1 top of page.

Emission factors

Tier 2 emission factors for PM10 and PM2,5 from animal housing are provided in EMEP(2009)-4B-27, Table 3-10 [10]). For cattle and swine these emission factors differentiate between slurry and solid manure systems. For buffalo, sheep and goats no PM emission factors are available.
The implied emission factors given in Table 5 relate the overall PM emissions to the number of animals in each animal category.

Table 5: IEF for PM2,5 & PM10

Implied emission factors for PM2,5 & PM10
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012
animal PM10 in kg/animal place
dairy cattle 0.480 0.550 0.560 0.570 0.580 0.570 0.570
other cattle 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.240 0.240 0.240 0.240
buffalo NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
mules and asses 0.140 0.140 0.140 0.140 0.140 0.140 0.140
horses 0.140 0.140 0.140 0.140 0.140 0.140 0.140
sheep NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
goats NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
swine 0.380 0.380 0.380 0.370 0.360 0.360 0.360
laying hens 0.021 0.021 0.026 0.035 0.072 0.075 0.075
broilers 0.052 0.052 0.052 0.052 0.052 0.052 0.052
turkeys 0.032 0.032 0.032 0.032 0.032 0.032 0.032
pullets 0.052 0.052 0.052 0.052 0.052 0.052 0.052
ducks 0.032 0.032 0.032 0.032 0.032 0.032 0.032
geese 0.032 0.032 0.032 0.032 0.032 0.032 0.032
PM2.5 in kg/animal place
dairy cattle 0.3100 0.3600 0.3600 0.3700 0.3700 0.3700 0.3700
other cattle 0.1700 0.1700 0.1600 0.1600 0.1600 0.1600 0.1600
buffalo NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
mules and asses 0.1000 0.1000 0.1000 0.1000 0.1000 0.1000 0.1000
horses 0.1000 0.1000 0.1000 0.1000 0.1000 0.1000 0.1000
sheep NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
goats NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
swine 0.0620 0.0620 0.0620 0.0610 0.0600 0.0590 0.0590
laying hens 0.0028 0.0028 0.0038 0.0058 0.0135 0.0140 0.1410
broilers 0.0070 0.0070 0.0070 0.0070 0.0070 0.0070 0.0070
turkeys 0.0040 0.0040 0.0040 0.0040 0.0040 0.0040 0.0040
pullets 0.0070 0.0070 0.0070 0.0070 0.0070 0.0070 0.0070
ducks 0.0040 0.0040 0.0040 0.0040 0.0040 0.0040 0.0040
geese 0.0040 0.0040 0.0040 0.0040 0.0040 0.0040 0.0040
Bibliography
1. Haenel et. al. (2014): Calculations of gaseous and particulate emissions from German agriculture 1990-2012. Thünen Report 17.
2. Reidy B., Dämmgen U., Döhler H., Eurich-Menden B., Hutchings N.J., Luesink H.H., Menzi H., Misselbrook T.H., Monteny G.-J., Webb J. (2008): Comparison of models used for the calculation of national NH3 emission inventories from agriculture: liquid manure systems. Atmospheric Environment 42, 3452-3467.
3. Dämmgen U., Hutchings N.J. (2008): Emissions of gaseous nitrogen species from manure management - a new approach. Environmental Pollution 154, 488-497.
5. Dämmgen U., Erisman J.W. (2005): Emission, transmission, deposition and environmental effects of ammonia from agricultural sources. In: Kuczyński T., Dämmgen U., Webb J., Myczko (eds) Emissions from European Agriculture. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen. pp 97-112.
6. Weingarten, P. (1995): Das „Regionalisierte Agrar- und Umweltinformationssystem für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland“ (RAUMIS). Berichte über die Landwirtschaft Band 73, 272-302.
7. Henrichsmeyer, W.; Cypris, Ch.; Löhe, W.; Meuth, M.; Isermeyer F; Heinrich, I.; Schefski, A.; Neander, E.; Fasterding, F.;, Neumann, M.; Nieberg, H.( 1996): Entwicklung des gesamtdeutschen Agrarsektormodells RAUMIS96. Endbericht zum Kooperationsprojekt. Forschungsbericht für das BMELF (94 HS 021), Bonn, Braunschweig.
8. IPCC – Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (1996): 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Reference Manual (Volume 3).
11. NIR (2014): National Inventory Report 2014 for the German Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990-2012. Available in April 2014.
12. Rösemann C., Haenel H.-D., Poddey E., Dämmgen U., Döhler H., Eurich-Menden B., Laubach P., Dieterle M., Osterburg B. (2011): Calculations of gaseous and particulate emissions from German agriculture 1990-2009. vTI Agriculture and Forestry Research (Landbauforschung), Special Issue (Sonderheft) 342.
Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 License