1.A.3.d.i International Navigation

Last updated on 04 Dec 2014 08:38 (cf. Authors)

Short description

Under category 1.A.3.d i - International Navigation the emissions from international navigation are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by)
1.A.3.d i International Navigation T1 NS CS, D, C not included in national totals

The source category includes international deep sea fishery and international marine transport. Emissions from fuel consumption for international transports of ocean-going ships are not reported as part of total national inventories.

Method

For Germany, emissions from navigation are calculated as the product of consumed fuels and country-specific emission factors and thus following a tier1 approach.

Activity data

The total consumptions of diesel oil and heavy fuel oil have been taken from the German Energy Balances (AGEB, 2013) [1]. For comparison (especially recent years), official mineral-oil data of the Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (BAFA, 2013) [2] are used, too.

Table 1: Sources for 1.A.3.d i activity data

since 1990 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 6: 'Hochseebunkerungen'
recent years / comparison BAFA - Official oil data, table 6j, column: 'Bunker int. Schifffahrt'

Table 2: 1.A.3.d i annual fuel consumption 1990-2012, in [TJ]

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Diesel Oil 21,408 17,375 17,330 19,165 17,748 18,498 25,713 25,659 20,734 18,794
Heavy Fuel Oil 80,230 68,029 54,038 70,059 64,363 64,382 56,468 62,708 62,812 66,018
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Diesel Oil 20,033 18,146 19,384 20,433 17,873 17,538 21,388 23,453 19,312 19,870
Heavy Fuel Oil 69,578 72,311 77,913 87,029 92,020 85,370 85,277 104,066 103,830 92,614
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Diesel Oil 21,605 20,168 17,849
Heavy Fuel Oil 93,063 92,663 87,667

italic: recalculated against submission 2013

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Consumption of heavy oil has been increasing since 1984 as a result of high petroleum prices, global increases in transports and increasing maritime use of diesel engines that can run on heavy oil. The emissions fluctuations that occurred in the navigation sector in 1992 and 1996 were caused by trade and oil crises.

Emission factors

At the moment, EF used here are tier1 only: For NH3, NOx, NMVOC, CO, SO2, PM, heavy metals, HCB, and PCBs defaults from the EMEP/EEA Emission Inventory Guidebook 2013 [3] are applied. - Furthermore, the tier1 values for ∑PAH and PCDD/F were derived from a study carried out by (Rentz et al., 2008) [4].

Table 3: EF used for 1990-2012 emission estimates

Main Pollutants1,6 Particulate Matter3,6 Heavy Metals 1 Persistent Organis Pollutants1,6
NEC Other PM2.5 ≤ PM10 ≤ TSP Main HM Other HM Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons5,6 Dioxins & Furans5,6 Hexachlo- robenzene Polychlorinated biphenyls
NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM2.5 PM10 TSP Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F, B[k]F, I[1,2,3-cd]P ∑PAH PCDD/F HCB1 PCBs1
kg/TJ kg/TJ g/TJ mg/TJ µg/TJ mg/TJ
Diesel Oil 42 52 1,800 600 180 60 60 60 3.03 0.23 0.70 0.93 1.16 21 23 2.33 28 6984 IE in ∑PAH 9305 935 1.86 8.85
Heavy Fuel Oil 4 52 1,800 1,400 180 60 60 60 4.45 0.49 0.49 17 18 31 792 5.20 30 698 IE in ∑PAH 930 93 3.46 14.10

1 tier1 default EF from EMEP/EEA Emission Inventory Guidebook 2013 [3]
2 tier1 EF(NH3) derived from comparable sources (e.g. heavy-duty vehicles)
3 tier1 EF from (UBA, 1989) [5]
4 tier1 EF(B[a]P) derived from values used for comparable sources
5 tier1 values derived from (Rentz et al., 2008) [4]
6 tier1 EF for diesel oil also applied for heavy fuel oil

Trends of exhaust emissions from international navigation

NFR 1.A.3.d.i - International Navigation is not included in the nationaol totals an hence not considered in the key source analysis.
Due to the tier1 approach applied, the trends of emissions reported correlate directly with the annual fuel consumption shown above.

Ammonia (NH3), Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO)

Particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

As for all reported exhaust PM emissions from mobile diesel vehicles the party assumes that nearly all particles emitted are within the PM2.5 range, resulting in similar emission values for PM2.5, PM10 , and TSP.

Recalculations

As both activity data and emission factors remain unchanged compared to the 2013 submission, no recalculations have been carried out.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS 2009) [6]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors for all 1.A.3.b sub-categories were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

At the moment, in order to fundamentally revise the inventory for German maritime navigation, a country specific model is being established at the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie -BSH) in Hamburg.

In addition, in order to consolidate the applied emission factors, a broad revision of the reporting of B[a]P and PAH 1-4 emissions is planned for all off-road mobile sources.

FAQs


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2013: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/DE/daten-und-fakten/bilanzen-1990-2011/bilanzen-1990-2011.html, (Aufruf: 21.02.2014), Köln, Berlin.
2. BAFA, 2013: Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/energie/mineraloel_rohoel/amtliche_mineraloeldaten/index.html, (Aufruf: 27.10.2012), Eschborn.
3. EMEP/EEA 2013: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013
4. Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008, URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer
5. UBA, 1989: Luftreinhaltung 88: Tendenzen - Probleme - Lösungen. Materialien zum 4. Immissionsschutzbericht der Bundesregierung an den Deutschen Bundestag. Erich Schmidt, Berlin.
6. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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