Explanation of Key Trends

Last updated on 04 Dec 2014 08:38 (cf. Authors)

This chapter features tabular and graphical representations of emissions and emission trends for CO, NMVOC, NOx, SO2, NH3, TSP, PM2.5 and PM10. The covered time scale stretches from 1990 to the latest reporting year (the previous but one year) for data and further back for general explanation. Emission are listed as totals here and detailed by NFR source category in the pollutant-specific subsections, these also include summaries of the main drivers for the pollutant in question. The subsections also feature details on the inventory preparation process for the individual pollutants and source categories, including the tier of the methods applied and data characterisation.

Detailed Emission Trends

Nitrogen Oxide (NOx)
Sulfur dioxide (SO2)
Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOC)
Ammonia (NH3)
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Total suspended particulate matter (TSP)
Fine Particulate Matter (PM10)
Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5)
In addition, information and data on emissions of persistent organic pollutants (POP) and heavy metals are also available.

Total emission trends

Between the 1950s and 1970s, air pollution in both parts of Germany was considerably higher than today, mainly due to the "traditional" pollutants sulphur dioxide, airborne particulates and to some extend nitrogen oxides. The reduction in the concentration of pollutants has been forced by regulations that induced technological advancements in stationary combustion plants and vehicles and caused the gradual changeover from solid fuels like coal and lignite to oil and gas, the increased use of low-sulphur heating oil, and, later, the desulphurisation of flue gases in large combustion plants (LCP).

The graph below shows total emission trends for the most important pollutants. The values are displayed as decrease of emission in percent compared to a base year, set to 1995 for PM2.5 and PM10 and 1990 for all other pollutants.

Because of the fact that air pollution is not being kept within national borders, this has been an issue on the European Union's agenda for a long time, resulting in increasingly strict regulations for air quality management, as new knowledge and concepts were taken into consideration. The framework for these regulations is the Council "Framework" Directive 96/62/EC of 27 September 1996 on ambient air quality assessment and management, the objectives and principles of which are set out in concrete terms in so-called daughter directives. The framework directive and the first two daughter directives were adopted in German law through the 22nd Federal Immission Control Ordinance (22nd BImSchV). The third daughter directive was subsequently adopted through the 33rd Federal Immission Control Ordinance (33rd BImSchV), whilst the fourth daughter directive is currently passing through the legislative process.
The limit values specified in the daughter directives are based on the work of the World Health Organisation (WHO) and, in general, are considerably lower than the limits specified in previous regulations.

Where particle emissions are considered, new limit values for fine dust (PM10) have replaced the previous limit values for total suspended particulate matter (TSP).

Another new feature compared to the previous EC directives is that the first daughter directive makes it compulsory to make up-to-date information on ambient air quality and air pollution situation routinely available to the public.

In addition to the air quality directives, the European Commission has also issued Directive 2001/81/EC on national emission ceilings (NEC) for certain atmospheric pollutants, restricting maximum national emission levels for the year 2010. This directive covers sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), and volatile organic compounds (VOC), and was adopted into German law through the 33rd BImschV. Recently work is in progress to agree on further reduction commitments until 2020 including also national emission ceilings for all types of particle emissions.

Translating this historic development, these regulations and the figure above into numbers leads to trends visible in the following table. It shows total emission values for the pollutants referred to. All numbers are given in giga-grams, i.e. kilotons.

Pollutant 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
NOx 2,877 2,633 2,490 2,384 2,225 2,172 2,101 2,032 2,004 1,978
SO2 5,283 3,905 3,183 2,837 2,372 1,705 1,442 1,205 967 788
NMVOC 3,066 2,617 2,398 2,250 1,849 1,768 1,706 1,689 1,654 1,514
NH3 697 621 612 614 587 598 604 596 601 600
CO 12,428 10,166 8,775 7,974 7,039 6,595 6,126 5,968 5,504 5,130
TSP 1,884 1,100 785 625 510 417 403 415 400 399
PM10 (1995 base year) 298 286 291 279 276
PM2.5 (1995 base year) 179 170 170 161 157
Pollutant 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
NOx 1,919 1,841 1,761 1,706 1,638 1,563 1,554 1,477 1,402 1,303
SO2 638 616 551 522 485 460 471 454 454 407
NMVOC 1,371 1,270 1,208 1,141 1,151 1,122 1,112 1,049 996 910
NH3 600 607 593 589 581 572 568 566 567 574
CO 4,838 4,633 4,340 4,138 3,884 3,659 3,579 3,475 3,387 3,006
TSP 378 366 353 342 335 323 323 315 307 291
PM10 (1995 base year) 262 255 245 237 232 224 223 218 211 203
PM2.5 (1995 base year) 149 145 138 134 130 125 123 117 113 109
Pollutant 2010 2011 2012
NOx 1,325 1,289 1,269
SO2 430 424 427
NMVOC 1,023 980 952
NH3 548 560 545
CO 3,447 3,288 3,290
TSP 316 321 316
PM10 (1995 base year) 220 219 217
PM2.5 (1995 base year) 119 113 112

In addition, information and data on emissions of persistent organic pollutants (POP) and heavy metals are also available.

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