1.A.3.a.ii Domestic Civil Aviation

Last updated on 04 Dec 2014 08:38 (cf. Authors)

Short description

Category 1.A.3.a ii - Domestic Civil Aviation consists of sub-categories for emissions from flight phases LTO (Landing/Take-off: 0-3,000 feet) and Cruise (> 3,000 feet) where only emissions from LTO have to be included in the national totals.

In the following, information on emission factors and emissions for both 1.A.3.a ii (i) - Domestic Civil Aviation (LTO) and 1.A.3.a ii (ii) - Domestic Civil Aviation (Cruise) are provided.

Emissions from military aircraft are not included in this category but are reported under 1.A.5.b - Other Mobile Sources: Military.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by1)
1.A.3.a ii Domestic Civil Aviation T12, T23, T34 NS CS, D
consisting of / including sub-categories
1.A.3.a ii (i) Landing/Take-off (LTO)5 T1, T2, T3 NS CS, D no key source
1.A.3.a ii (ii) Cruise6 T1, T3 NS CS, D no key source

1 T = key source by Trend / L = key source by Level
2 for SO2
3 for several emissions from aviation gasoline
4 for all emissons depending on altitude, type of engine, etc. and flight stage
5 1.A.3.a ii (i) - LTO: included in national totals
6 1.A.3.a ii (ii) - Cruise: not included in national totals

Method

For a detailed description of the methods used for emission calculations, see main chapter 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

Actitvity Data

Specific activity data for international flights from German airports are calculated from primary actvity data for the entire civil aviation sector in Germany as provided by AGEB [1] and BAFA [2].

Table 1: jet kerosene consumption 1990-2012, in [TJ]

annual total consumption
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
29,219 26,680 25,639 24,528 24,652 25,193 26,302 28,223 28,209 29,006
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
30,684 29,024 28,022 27,593 27,235 28,670 30,410 31,327 31,320 29,710
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
27,550 24,494 25,175
annual LTO-stage consumption
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
20,060 18,006 16,719 16,087 16,279 16,283 17,449 18,939 19,238 19,977
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
21,143 19,865 19,148 18,765 18,287 19,326 20,687 21,342 21,148 20,183
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
18,036 14,803 16,041
annual cruise-stage consumption
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
9,159 8,674 8,919 8,441 8,374 8,910 8,853 9,285 8,970 9,028
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
9,541 9,159 8,879 8,828 8,951 9,344 9,723 9,985 10,172 9,527
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
9,514 9,691 9,134

italic: recalculated against submission 2013

As mentioned above, the use of aviation gasoline is - due to a lack of further information - assumed to take place in national aviation only and only within the LTO-range below 3,000 feet operating altitude. As soon as better data allows the split-up of the consumption of aviation gasoline onto national and international aviation and onto both flight stages, Germany will accordingly adjust its inventory.

Table 3: annual 1.A.3.a ii (i) avgas consumption 1990-2012, in [TJ]

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
2,438 2,395 1,698 1,219 1,175 1,142 946 1.162 1,029 1,110
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
1,120 984 823 766 659 698 653 611 638 594
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
568 614 558

Emission factors

All emission factors used for emission reporting were ascertained within UBA project FKZ 360 16 029 [3].
For more details, see superordinate chapter on 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

(I)EFs used for 2012 emissions estimates

Main Pollutants Particulate Matter4 Heavy Metals Persistent Organic Pollutants
NEC Other PM2.5 ≤ PM10 ≤ TSP Main HM Other HM PAH Dioxins & Furans
NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM2.5 PM10 TSP Pb Cd Hg As - Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[1,2,3-cd]P ∑PAH PCDD/F
kg/TJ kg/TJ g/TJ mg/TJ µg/TJ
LTO 4.001 472 2502 4.651 3792 1.97 1.97 1.974 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
Cruise 4.001 112 3102 4.651 522 4.65 4.65 4.654 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
LTO - Avgas NE 1863 2613 0.511 15,3843 NE NE 15.17 5 9.48 6 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE

1 tier1 EF derived from TREMOD AV module within TREMOD 5.4 [3]
2 annual tier3 EF derived from TREMOD AV module within TREMOD 5.4
3 annual tier2 EF derived from TREMOD AV module within TREMOD 5.4
4 EF(TSP) from Corinair 2007 also applied for PM10 and PM2.5 (assumption: > 99% of TSP from diesel oil combustion consists of PM2.5)
5 AvGas EF(TSP): calculated from the EF(Pb): EF(TSP) = 1.6 x EF(Pb) - see road transport
6 AvGas EF(Pb): calculated from the average lead content of AvGas 100 LL (low-lead): 0.56 g Pb/liter

Trend discussion for Key Sources

NFR 1.A.3.a ii (i) - Domestic Civil Aviation - LTO is no key source.
NFR 1.A.3.a ii (ii) - Domestic Civil Aviation - Cruise is no part of national emission totals and hence not included in the key source analysis.

Recalculations

Compared to submission 2013, all activity data and fuel shares used remain unchanged.

Only few changes occur regarding the emission factors used for aviation gasoline. Here, for NOx and CO, tier2 emission factors for 2011 have been revised slightly:

Table : Revision of the 2011 EF(NOx) and EF(CO) values for avgas (EF values in [kg/TJ])

EF(NOx) EF(CO)
Submission 2014 263 15,354
Submission 2013 283 14,853
absolute change -20 501
relative change -7% 3%

For NMVOC, the tier1 default value of 300 kg/TJ has been replaced by annual tier3 values, resulting in the following time series:

Table : Revision of the EF(NMVOC) times series 1990-2011 for avgas (EF values in [kg/TJ])

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Submission 2014 181 182 184 184 183 182 183 181 179 179 179 178 178 177 176 177 175 174 177 178 180 186
Submission 2013 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300
absolute change -119 -118 -116 -116 -117 -118 -117 -119 -121 -121 -121 -122 -122 -123 -124 -123 -125 -126 -123 -122 -120 -114
relative change -40% -39% -39% -39% -39% -39% -39% -40% -40% -40% -40% -41% -41% -41% -41% -41% -42% -42% -41% -41% -40% -38%

As result of the changes described, emission estimates were recalculated for both 1.A.3.a ii (i) - LTO and (ii) - Cruise.
For information on the impacts on 1990 and 2011 emission estimates, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 11.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

For uncertainties information, see main chapter 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

Planned improvements

At the moment, no category specific improvements are planned.

FAQs

Why does the party use similar emission factors for estimating emissions of PM2.5 , PM10 , and TSP from jet kerosene?

According to the 2007 EMEP Corinair Guidebook, PM emissions from aircraft engines can be considered as PM2.5:

From combustion science principles it is anticipated that the PM2.5/PM10 ratio for aircraft engines will be similar to, or higher than, that for internal combustion engines. Given that the ratio for IC engines is found to be 94%, it is reasonable to assume that for aircraft their PM emissions can be considered as PM2.5. The PM2.5/PM10 ratio most commonly used when reporting values within EMEP is 1.0. This is the relationship assumed in this guidebook.

Why are the SO2 emission factors for jet kerosene the same for national and international civil aviation as well as for LTO and Cruise whereas the EFs of other pollutants are different for all four sub-categories?

Emissions of NMVOC, CO or NOx depend strongly on parameters as engine type and altitude (and therewith on atmospheric pressure, environmental temperature, humidity, etc.). As the average fleets operating in national and international aviation are assumed to be not equal (average size of aircraft or engine), the EFs vary for both national and international aviation and flight stages (LTO, Cruise). In contrast, emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2) depend exclusively on the sulphur content of the fuel in question which is also object of regional fluctuations.

Why are emissions from aviation gasoline reported using a Tier 1 approach whereas for jet kerosene Tier 2a has been applied?

For reporting emissions from the cosumption of jet kerosene, the party uses an annual split factor provided by Eurocontrol to devide the total amount of kerosene used (from Energy Balances & Official oil data for the Federal Republic of Germany) onto national and international civil aviation. For aviation gasoline, such split factor does not exist. - Furthermore, the deviation of kerosene used onto flight stages LTO and Cruise has been carried out using data on numbers of take-offs from German airports provided by the German Federal Statistical Office. At the moment, such data is not available for aircraft using aviation gasoline.

On which basis does the party estimate the reported lead emissions from aviation gasoline?

assumption by party: aviation gasoline = AvGas 100 LL
(AvGas 100 LL is the predominant sort of aviation gasoline in Western Europe)
lead content of AvGas 100 LL: 0.56 g lead/liter (as tetra ethyl lead)

2007 EMEP Corinair Guidebook:

Lead is added to aviation gasoline to increase the octane number. The lead content is higher than in leaded car gasoline,…

The applied procedure is similar to the one used for calculating lead emissions from leaded gasoline used in road transport. (There, in contrast to aviation gasoline, the lead content constantly declined resulting in a ban of leaded gasoline in 1997.)

On which basis does the party estimate the reported TSP emissions from aviation gasoline?

The TSP emissions calculated depend directly on the reported lead emissions: The emission factor for TSP is 1.6 times the emission factor used for lead: EF(TSP) = 1.6 x EF(Pb).
The applied procedure is similar to the one used for calculating TSP emissions from leaded gasoline used in road transport.


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2013: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/DE/daten-und-fakten/bilanzen-1990-2011/bilanzen-1990-2011.html, (Aufruf: 21.02.2014), Köln, Berlin.
2. BAFA, 2013: Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/energie/mineraloel_rohoel/amtliche_mineraloeldaten/index.html, (Aufruf: 24.02.2014), Eschborn. URL: http://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/energie/mineraloel/amtliche_mineraloeldaten/index.html, (Aufruf: 21.01.2013), Eschborn.
3. Ifeu & Öko-Institut, 2010: Implementierung eines eigenständigen Moduls zur Berechnung des Flugverkehrs in das bestehende TREMOD-System, vorläufiger Endbericht zum F+E-Vorhaben 360 16 029, Berlin & Heidelberg, November 2010; URL: http://webdev3/websites/I2-6/projekte/Endberichte%20%20Dokumente/FKZ%20360%2016%20029%20(Implementierung%20des%20Flugverkehrs%20in%20TREMOD)/03_Endbericht_(Draft).pdf
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