4.D Agricultural Soils

Last updated on 04 Dec 2014 08:38 (cf. Authors)

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by)
4.D Agricultural Soils
consisting of / including source categories
4.D 1 a Synthetic N-fertilizers T2 (NH3), T1 (for NOx) NS D (NH3), D (NOx) NOx (L), NH3 (L/T)
4.D 2 a Farm-level agricultural operations including storage, handling and transport of agricultural products T3 (NH3); T2 (for NOx); T1 (TSP, PM) RS, NS, M (for NOx) D (for NOx) NOx (L), TSP (L), PM10 (L/T)
4.D 2 b Off-farm storage, handling and transport of bulk agricultural products - - - -
4.D 2 c N-excretion on pasture range and paddock T1 (for NOx), T3 (NH3) RS D -

Country specifics

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NH3 and NOx

In 2012 the sector of agricultural soils contributes ca. 75 Gg NH3 or 14.6 % to the total agricultural NH3 emissions in Germany (512.3 Gg NH3). The main source is the application of N-fertilizer (4.D 1a), contributing 87.6 % of of soil-related NH3 emissions (~ 65.6 Gg). N excretions on pastures (4.D 2c) and the growth of legumes (4.D 2a) have shares of11.2 % (~8.4 Gg) and 1.3 % (~ 0.9 Gg), respectively. NH3 emissions from the application of manure is included in sector 4B.
Agricultural soils make up 98.2 % (104.8 Gg) of the total of NOx emissions in the agricultural sector (106.7 Gg). The NOx emissions from agricultural soils are mostly due to application of mineral fertilizer (61.7 %) and manure (35.3 %) while excretions on pastures are of minor importance (3.0 %). NOx emissions from crop residues and biological N fixation (legumes) are not reported as neither IPCC nor EMEP (2009) provide a calculation methodology.

NMVOC

NMVOC emissions from agriculture are not reported for this submission as the methodology used in previous submissions has been evaluated as not adequate by international experts (Haenel et al., (2014) [1]).

PM2,5 & PM10

In 2012, agricultural soils contribute 11.7 % (0.7 Gg) and 47.8 % (ca. 18.6 Gg) to the total agricultural PM2,5, and PM10, emissions (PM2,5: 6.1 Gg, PM10: 38.9 Gg), respectively. The emissions are reported in category 4D2a.

4.D 1a Synthetic N-fertilizers

Activity Data

German statistics report the amount of fertilizers sold. Assuming that the change of fertilizers stocked is small compared with the amount of fertilizers sold, the amount of fertilizer sold is taken to be the amount of fertilizer applied.
The amount of N fertilizer applied in the year 2012 is 1,640 Gg N.

Table 1: Amount of N applied with mineral fertilizers

Activity data in Gg N
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012
Application of fertilizer (total) 2.163,6 1.787,3 2.013,6 1.778,4 1.569,0 1.786,5 1.640,4
calcium ammonium nitrate 1.348,4 1.090,6 1.057,3 831,9 712,9 728,4 681,8
nitrogen solutions (urea AN) 117,2 225,9 273,4 237,9 187,5 199,7 172,5
urea 246,6 190,7 231,5 261,6 280,0 377,3 311,3
ammonium phosphates 97,2 57,0 75,7 58,1 62,5 76,5 73,4
other NK and NPK 238,7 162,0 169,9 132,5 50,5 79,1 69,0
other straight fertilizers 115,5 61,1 205,9 256,5 275,7 325,4 332,3

Methodology

NH3 emissions are calculated using the Tier 2 approach according to EMEP(2009)-4D-12ff [10]. For NH3 emissions, various fertilizer types are distinguished. Regions are differentiated according to their mean spring temperatures. For details see Haenel et al. (2014) [1].
For NOx, the Tier 1 approach described in EMEP(2009) [10]-B1010-15 is applied.

Emission factors

The emission factors for NH3 depend on fertilizer type and mean spring temperature, see EMEP(2009)-4D-14[10]. The emission calculations were made with region specific spring temperatures. As the mean spring temperature in Germany is around 9°C, Table 2 lists the EMEP emission factors for 9°C for the fertilizers used in the inventory.

Table 2: NH3-EF for mineral fertilizers

Mineral fertilizers, emission factors in NH3-N per kg fertilizer N
Fertilizer type EF (9°C)
calcium ammonium nitrate 0.0073
nitrogen solutions (UREA AN) 0.0581
urea 0.1138
ammonium phosphates 0.0133
other NK and NPK 0.0073
other straight fertilizers 0.0073

For NOx, the simpler methodology by EMEP(2009)-4D-10ff [10] was used. The emission factor for NOx-N is obtained by multiplying the EMEP emission factor of 0.026 NO per kg fertilizer N (EMEP, 2009-4D, Table 3-1) with the atomic weight ratio 14/30. The emission factor for NOx as NO2 is obtained by multiplying the NO emission factor with the atomic weight ratio 46/30

Table 3: Emission factor for NOx emissions from fertilizer application

Emission factor kg NOx-N per kg fertilizer N kg NOx-N per kg fertilizer N
EFfert 0.012 0.040

4.D 2a Farm-level agricultural operations including storage, handling and transport of agricultural products

In this sector Germany reports:

  • NOx emissions from application of manure
  • NH3 emissions from biological N-fixation
  • PM2,5 and PM10 emissions from agricultural soils

Note that NH3 emissions from application of manure are included under 4.B.

Application of manure

Activity data

The calculation of the amount of N in manure applied is based on the N mass flow approach (see 4.B). It is the sum of N excreted by animals in stables and the N imported with bedding material minus N losses by emissions of N species from housing and storage.

Table 4: AD for the estimation of NOx emissions from application of manure

Application of manure in Gg/a
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012
1,150.8 1,002.9 967.6 934.4 932.2 931.5 938.9

Methodology

The inventory calculates NO emissions that are subsequently converted into NOx emissions by multiplying with 46/30. The Tier 1 approach for the application of mineral fertilizer as described in EMEP(2009)-4D-10ff [10] is used, as no specific methodology is available for manure application.

Emission factors

As the method for fertilizer application is used, the emission factor for fertilizer application (see Table 3) was adopted.

Biological N-fixation

Biological N fixation worth considering takes place in legumes only. First and foremost, emissions of N species from legumes are related to the amount of N fixed. In the German inventory, this is assumed to be proportional to the area covered with legumes and the plant specific nitrogen fixation rate. The German inventory also takes clover-grass and alfalfa-grass mixtures into account. ++++ Activity data
The amount of nitrogen fixed biologically is considered the actual activity. It is obtained from the area cultivated with a legume and the specific fixation rate of this legume.

Table 5: AD for the estimation of NH3 emissions from biological N-fixation

N fixation in legumes in Gg/a
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012
140.4 95.6 95.6 94.7 77.0 79.6 77.6

Methodology

The calculation procedure for ammonia is described in EMEP(2007)-B1020-12 [9].

Emission factors

The emission factor for NH3 is taken from EMEP(2007)-B1020-12[9].
Table 6: Emission factor for NH3-N emissions from biological N-fixation

Emission factor
EFN, NH3 0.01 kg kg-1 NH3-N

Emissions from agricultural soils

According to EMEP (2009) Germany reports emissions of particulate from cultivation of arable land.

Activity data

The activity data are the areas of arable and horticultural land. These data is provided by official statistics.
Table 7: AD for the estimation of PM emissions from soils

Arable and horticultural land in 1000*ha
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012
12,056 11,910 11,892 12,003 11,954 11,983 11,940

Methodology

As the Tier 2 methodology described in EMEP(2009)-4D-13 [10] cannot be used due to lack of input data, the Tier 1 methodology described in EMEP(2009)-4D-10 f [10] is used. The approach deals with arable land only. It only allows for a first estimate of the order of magnitude to be expected for these emissions.
As no emission factor is available for TSP, TSP is assumed to equal the emission of PM10.

Emission factors

Emission factors factor given in EMEP(2009)-4D-11 [10] are used.

Table 8: Emission factors for PM emissions from agricultural soils

Emission factor kg ha-1 a-1
EFPM10 1.56
EFPM2.5 0.06

4.D 2c N-excretion on pasture range and paddock

The calculation of NH3 and NOx emission resulting from animal excreta dropped during grazing is described in the following. For details see Haenel et al. (2014) [1].

Activity data

Activity data for NH3 emissions during grazing is the amount of TAN excreted on pasture (see 4.B). Activity data for NOx emissions during grazing is the amount of N excreted on pasture. For details see Haenel et al. (2014) [1]).

Table 8: AD N excretion

N excretion on pasture range and paddock in Gg N
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012
Dairy cows 113.2 (60%) 74.5 (59%) 64.6 (57%) 55.2 (56%) 50.4 (55%) 51.5 (55%) 51.8 (55%)
Other cattle 85.0 (64%) 81.2 (63%) 84.2 (63%) 74.1 (63%) 74.0 (63%) 71.1 (63%) 70.3 (63%)
Buffalo NO NO 0.008 (50%) 0.016 (50%) 0.031 (50%) 0.035 (50%) 0.037 (50%)
Sheep 13.9 (50%) 12.8 (50%) 11.8 (50%) 11.5 (50%) 9.5 (50%) 7.7 (50%) 7.7 (50%)
Goats 0.34 (50%) 0.38 (50%) 0.53 (50%) 0.64 (50%) 0.56 (50%) 0.56 (50%) 0.56 (50%)
Horses 4.9 (60%) 6.2 (60%) 5.0 (60%) 5.0 (60%) 4.6 (60%) 4.6 (60%) 4.6 (60%)
Mules and asses 0.058 (60%) 0.058 (60%) 0.058 (60%) 0.058 (60%) 0.058 (60%) 0.058 (60%) 0.058 (60%)

Method

NH3 emissions from grazing are calculated by multiplying the amount of TAN excreted on pasture with an animal specific emission factor (see Table 10). NO emissions are calculated by multiplying the emission factor with the amount of total N excreted on pasture (see Table 10).

Emission Factors

The emission factors for NH3 are taken from EMEP(2009) [10]. They relate to the amount of TAN excreted on pasture. The emission factor for NOx is taken from EMEP(2007)-B1020-12 [9]. It relates to the amount of total N excreted on pasture. In order to obtain NOx emissions (as NO2) the NOx-N emission factor is to be multiplied by 46/14.

Table 10: Emission factors for emissions of NH3 and NOx from grazing

Emission factor
EFN, NH3 Dairy cows 0.10 kg kg-1 NH3-N
EFN, NH3 Other cattle 0.06 kg kg-1 NH3-N
EFN, NH3 Horses, mulles and asses 0.35 kg kg-1 NH3-N
EFN, NH3 Buffalo 0.13 kg kg-1 NH3-N
EFN, NH3 Sheep, goats 0.09 kg kg-1 NH3-N
EFN, NOx all animals 0.007 kg kg-1 NOx-N
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