1.B.1 Solid Fuels

Last updated on 04 Dec 2014 08:38 (cf. Authors)

Short Discription

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The source category Solid fuels (1.B.1) consists of three sub-source categories – the source category Coal mining (1.B.1.a), the source category Coal transformation (1.B.1.b) and the source category Other (1.B.1.c).
This chapter discusses fugitive emissions from coal mining, coal handling including door leakages from coke ovens and quenching (emissions from the furnace are covered by category 1.A.1.c) and emissions from the beneficiation of solid fuels.
In the mining sector, a distinction is made between open-pit mines, in which raw materials are extracted from pits open to the surface, and closed-pit mines, in which seams are mined underground. In Germany, hard coal is mined in closed-pits only, in three coal fields, in a total of seven mines, while lignite is mined in four coal fields, since 2003 with the open-pit method only.

NFR-Code Name of Category Pollutants Method Activity Data Emission Factor Key Source for (by1)
1.B.1.a Coal mining and handling TSP, PM10 , PM2.5 T1 AS D TSP (L), PM10 (L)
1.B.1.b Solid fuel transformation NMVOC, NH3, SO2,
TSP, CO, PAH, PCDD/F,
B[a]P
T1, T2 AS please click for details PAH (T), TSP (T)
1.B.1.c Other NA NA AS NO -

Method

Activity Data

1.B.1.a - Coal mining and handling

The activity rate has been taken from the STATISTIK DER KOHLENWIRTSCHAFT (in German only).

unit 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2012
lignite kt 356 513 192 738 167 660 177 907 169 403 185 432
hard coal kt 70 158 53 562 33 591 24 907 12 900 10 770

1.B.1.b - Solid fuel transformation

Following activity rates have been taken from the STATISTIK DER KOHLENWIRTSCHAFT (in German only).

unit 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2012
hard-coal-coke production kt 17 580 11 102 9 115 8 397 8 171 8 050
hard-coal briquettes production kt 756 379 146 91 0 0
low temperature lignite-coke production kt 1 500 0 0 0 0 0
lignite briquettes production kt 40 045 5 011 1 819 1 490 2 024 1 928
lignite granulate production kt 59 0 0 0 0 0
lignite coke production kt 3 356 192 179 173 176 170
lignite dust production kt 3 791 2 700 2 679 2 924 3 632 4 158
dry lignite production kt 695 570 0 0 0 0
fluidised circulating beds production kt 265 471 561 660 415 526

1.B.1.c - Other

Only CO2 and CH4 emissions from decommissioned hard-coal mines play a significant role in this sub-category. Other pollutants do not occur here.

Emission Factors

  • factors from charcoal production (TSP, NOx, CO) were taken from the document "Emission Factor Documentation for AP-42 - Section 10.7" by US-EPA (1995) [9].
  • Emission factors for TSP, PM10 and PM2,5 are taken from a 2006 research project [1] and the CEPMEIP-Database [7]. The EF for TSP and PM10 from coke production were updated in a research project in 2010 [6]. To date there are no verified PM10 and PM2,5 emission factors for emissions before year 1995.
  • There are many potential sources of PAH emissions from coke oven plant. The dominant emission sources are leakages from coke oven doors and from charging operations. As there are limited data available on PAH emissions the uncertainties of the estimated emission factors are very high. It should be also taken into account that emissions from coke production greatly vary between different coke production plants. The emission factors for benzo[a]pyrene and mixed PAH have been revised by research projects in 2010 [2, 6].
  • Emission factors for NMVOC, NH3, NOx and SO2 are based on a research project [4]

Trends in emissions

Particulates.jpg

Particulates

Source: 1.B.1.a, 1.B.1.b
Key Category: yes (by level and trend)
Trend: -92.6% since 1990 down_green.png

Particulates emissions occur during transformation of lignite and hard coal. The very steep decline of the emissions in the early 1990s arose due to the shrinking production of lignite briquettes (almost 90% in the first five years). The value of the year 1990 is partly based on the GDR’s emission report, chapter “Produktion” (=production) which has no clear differentiation between mining, transformation and handling of lignite. The total emission as reported in the emission report is allocated in the NFR categories 1.B.1 and 2. The split factor is based on estimation of experts.
There are no verified emission factors for PM2.5 and PM10 before 1995.
Sulphur dioxide

Source: 1.B.1.b
Key Category: no
Trend: -99.9% since 1990 down_green.png

Sulphur Dioxide emissions occur during production of hard-coal coke. The value of the year 1990 is partly based on the GDR’s emission report, chapter “Produktion” (=production) which has no clear differentiation between mining, transformation and handling of coal. The total emission as reported in the emission report is allocated in the NFR categories 1.B.1 and 2. The split factor is based on estimation of experts.
The apparently steep decline from 2007 to 2008 is the result of a research project in 2010, where new emission factors were determined for coke production for the years 2008 [6].
Sulfurdioxide.jpg
NMVOC.jpg

Non-methane volatile organic compounds

Source: 1.B.1.b
Key Category: no
Trend: -83.4% since 1990 down_green.png

Emissions of NMVOC occur during production of hard-coal coke. The shrinking emissions are mainly attributed to the hard-coal coke production and the decommissioning of outdated plants.
Carbon monoxide

Source: 1.B.1.b
Key Category: no
Trend: -25.8% since 1990 down_green.png

Carbon monoxide emissions occur during production of hard-coal coke and charcoal. The shrinking emissions are mainly attributed to the decreasing hard-coal coke production. Another important factor is the decommissioning of outdated plants.
Carbonmonoxide.jpg
Ammonia.jpg

Ammonia

Source: 1.B.1.b
Key Category: no
Trend: -99.6% since 1990 down_green.png

The emissions almost stopped to occur in the early 1990s due to the discontinuation of the low-temperature lignite-coke production. Since then emissions has remained on a negligible low level resulting from cokery process of hard coal.

References

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For greenhouse gases please refer to the National Inventory Report.

Bibliography
1. Federal Environment Agency research project No. 204 42 202/2 "Emissionen und Maßnahmenanalyse Feinstaub 2000-2020", published in 2006 [Click here]
2. Federal Environment Agency and DFIU research project "Anpassung der deutschen Methodik zur rechnerischen Emissionsermittlung an internationale Richtlinen, Teilbericht prioritäte Quellen", 2010 (not available online)
3. EMEP/EEA Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Guidebook 2009; published in 2009 (last pageview: Feb 2012)
4. Federal Environment Agency research project No. 205 42 221 "Referenzszenario 2000-2020 unter der NEC-Richtlinie", published in 2006 [Click here]
5. Federal Environment Agency and DMT research project No. 360 160 28 "Diffuse Emissionen Fester Brennstoffe (Kohlen), Emissionen von Grubengas aus stillgelegten Bergwerken; Potenzial zur Freisetzung und Verwertung von Grubengas", 2011 (not available online)
6. Federal Environment Agency and BFI research project No. 3707 42 301 "EMISSIONSFAKTOREN ZUR EISEN- UND STAHLINDUSTRIE FÜR DIE EMISSIONSBERICHTSERSTATTUNG", 2011 [Click here]
7. Co-ordinated European Programme on Particulate Matter Emission Inventories, Projections and Guidance (CEPMEIP), http://www.air.sk/tno/cepmeip/
8. Federal Environment Agency research project No. 312 01 234 "Überarbeitung der Schwermetallkapitel im CORINAIR Guidebook zur Verbesserung der Emissionsinventare und der Berichterstattung im Rahmen der Genfer Luftreinhaltekonvention", published in October 2008 [Click here]
9. US-EPA, Emission Factor Documentation for AP-42 - Section 10.7, published in 1995 [Click here]
10. VERICO, Verbesserung des Qualitätsmanagements und Verifikation der deutschen Emissionsinventare, Teilbericht: Fugitive emissions from solid fuels: solid fuels – CH4 (more specific open pit mining); FKZ 3713 19 101 (not published yet)

Comments

Report for the Stage 3 in-depth review of emission inventories submitted under the UNECE LRTAP Convention and EU National Emissions Ceilings (2011, 2014):

  • For the NFR code 1B1a, it is indicated in the emissions template as notation key "NE" for particulates and as “NA” for NMVOC. The ERT notes that the emissions depend on the nature of activity (open cast mining or underground mining), NMVOC and/or particulate emissions exist (cf EMEP guidebook). The ERT recommends that Germany identify the type of coal mining, use the EFs in the EMEP guidebook or others references to estimate emissions for this sector. The ERT recommend that if emissions do not occur to change the notation key from "NA" to "NE".

Answer: Emission factors for particles are adopted from the CEPMEIP Database [[7]]. The fraction of NMVOC in pit gas is around or even below 1% and thus assumed to be negligible. The notation key is changed to NE. For open pit mining the fraction of methane is very low, since the latter's temperature did not exceed 50°C during the coalification process. This was veryfied in a study of VERICO [[10]]. Experts of DEBRIV and VERICO assume the emission of NMVOC is negligible as well.

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