1.A.4.c.ii Off-road Vehicles and other Machinery in Agriculture & Forestry

Last updated on 04 Dec 2014 08:38 (cf. Authors)

Short description

Under sub-category 1.A.4.c ii - Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing: Off-road Vehicles and other Machinery fuel combustion activities and resulting emissions from agricultural tractors and other agricultural vehicles are reported.

At the moment, there is no separate activity data available for vehicles used in forestry.

traktor.PNG
NFR-Code Source category Method AD EF Key Source for (by1)
1.A.4.c ii Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing: Off-road Vehicles and other Machinery T1 NS CS NOx (L), PM2.5 & PM10 (L/T)

Method

Activity data

This sector's acitivity data is included in the primary activity data (PAD) given in the National Energy Balances (NEBs) for Germany, line 67: 'Commercial, trade, services and other consumers', also including deliveries to households and military facilities. [1]

In order to derive sector-specific consumption data, in a first step, deliveries to the military provided by (BAFA, 2013) [2] are deducted from these basic data.

Following this deduction, in a second step, the remaining amounts of gasoline and diesel oil are apportioned onto off-road construction vehicles (NFR 1.A.2.f ii) and off-road agricultural vehicles (NFR 1.A.4.c ii) with a share of 58 per cent assumed for NFR 1.A.4.c ii (cf. NFR 1.A.2.f ii)

As the NEB only provides primary activity data for total biomass used in 'Commercial, trade, services and other consumers', but does not distinguish into specific biofuels, the consumption of biodiesel or bioethanol remained unconsidered up to now. In order to close this (minor) gap, starting with this submission, consumption data for biodiesel and or bioethanol used in NFR 1.A.4.c ii are calculated by applying Germany's official annual biofuel shares.

Due to this procedure, the over-all fuel consumption in NFR 1.A.4.c ii has been increased slightly for all years as of 2004 by adding the amounts of biofuels used, resulting in corresponding changes in over-all emissions (see also: info recalculations).

(1)
\begin{gather} AD_\text{ NFR 1.A.4.c ii} = 0.58 \cdot (PAD_\text{ NEB line 67} - AD_\text{ NFR 1.A.5.b}) \end{gather}

Table 1: Annual mobile fuel consumption in agriculture, [TJ]

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Diesel Oil 64,892 65,613 55,284 56,935 56,411 56,723 55,634 55,979 55,297 56,786
Biodiesel NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO
Gasoline 3,889 4,167 4,167 4,167 4,294 4,329 4,295 4,295 4,295 4,295
Bioethanol NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Diesel Oil 55,135 53,049 52,121 51,396 49,782 47,500 48,338 47,906 48,909 52,008
Biodiesel NO NO NO NO 429 1,039 1,408 2,140 2,418 3,582
Gasoline 4,294 4,273 4,294 4,294 4,298 4,231 4,267 4,267 4,216 2,579
Bioethanol NO NO NO NO 5 29 62 58 81 74
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Diesel Oil 51,341 52,626 51,959
Biodiesel 3,330 3,450 3,392
Gasoline 2,518 2,286 2,145
Bioethanol 97 94 95

italic: value recalculated due to newly implemented separation of biofuels (2004-2011) and revised NEB (2011)

Emission factors

The EF used are of very different quality (compare table below): Without better information, constant tier1 values derived from comparable sources (e.g. pre-euro1 heavy duty vehicles road transport) are used for NH3 from diesel oil and gasoline and NMVOC from gasoline. The tier1 values used for PCDD/F are derived from a study carried out by (Rentz et al., 2008) [3] for the German Federal Environment Agency.

For NOx, NMVOC, SO2, CO, and PM from diesel oil and SO2 from gasoline, annually changing tier2 values computed within TREMOD-MM (ifeu, 2010) [4] are used, representing the development of fuel qualities and mitigation technologies.

In addition, starting with the current submission, EF for exhaust heavy metal* and B[a]P emissions have been derived from (EMEP/EEA, 2013) [5], whereas for all other PAHs and the PAH total, no emission factors are available at present.
* Exception: For lead (Pb) from leaded gasoline and corresponding TSP emissions, annually country-specific EFs are applied representing the fade-out of leaded gasoline in 1997.

NOTE: As no such specific EF are available for biofuels, the values used for diesel oil and gasoline are applied to biodiesel and bioethanol, respectively.

Table 3: (I)EFs used for 2012 emission estimates

Main Pollutants Particulate Matter Heavy Metals Persistent Organis Pollutants
NEC Other PM2.5 ≤ PM10 ≤ TSP Main HM3,4 Other HM4 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Dioxins & Furans
NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM2.5 PM10 TSP Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[1,2,3-cd]P ∑PAH Dioxins & Furans
kg/TJ kg/TJ g/TJ mg/TJ g I-Teq
Diesel fuels 4.001 1632 6532 0.371 7031 1256 1256 1255 NE 0.23 NE NE 1.16 40 1.63 0.23 23 6972 NE NE NE NE 1.625
Gasoline fuels 4.001 3732 7252 0.401 4,0101 NE NE NE NO3 0.23 NE NE 1.15 39 1.61 0.23 23 9194 NE NE NE NE 2.767

1 country-specific tier1 emission factors from TREMOD-MM [4]
2 country-specific, annual tier2 emission factors from TREMOD-MM [4]
3 leaded gasoline banned in 1997
4 tier1 defaults from EMEP/EEA Guidebook 2013 [5]
5 EF(TSP) from 'Emissionen und Maßnahmenanalyse Feinstaub 2000-2020' EF(TSP) [6]
6 EF(TSP) also applied for PM10 and PM2.5 (assumption: > 99% of TSP from diesel oil combustion consists of PM2.5)
7 tier1 values derived from (Rentz et al., 2008) [4]

Trend discussion (for Key Sources)

NFR 1.A.4.c ii - Off-road Vehicles and other Machinery in Agriculture & Forestry is key source for emissions of

  • NOx regarding level
  • PM2.5 regarding level and trend,
  • PM10 regarding level and trend, and
  • TSP regarding the level.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

Emissions of nitrogen oxides follow the decreasing trend of fuel cosumed by agricultural vehicles and machinery.

Particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

PM emissions from NFR 1.A.4.c ii result from two effects: For the years 1990 to 1997, TSP emissions from leaded gasoline are reported together with TSP emissions from the combustion of diesel oil. From 1995 onwards, PM2.5 and PM10 emissions from diesel combustion are provided as well. Therefore, over-all TSP emissions are marginally (0.1-0.5%) higher than PM2.5 and PM10 for the years 1995 to 1997.

As emissions of particulate matter are related directly with the consumption of diesel oil, the over-all trend of these emissions follows the decreasing trend of annual diesel oil consumption. As for all reported exhaust PM emissions from mobile diesel vehicles the party assumes that nearly all particles emitted are within the PM2.5 range, resulting in similar emission values for PM2.5, PM10, and TSP.

In addition, the decrease was and still is amplified by the expanding use of particle filters especially to eliminate soot emissions.

Recalculations

Due to the newly implemented separate reporting of biofuels, emission time series for fossil diesel oil and gasoline have been revised for all years as of 2004.

As mentioned above, activity data used for this sector is estimated from NEB line 67: 'Commercial, trade, services and other consumers', also including deliveries to households and military facilities [1]. Here, for NFR 1.A.5.b the newly implemented separate reporting of biofuels resulted in decreased amounts of fossil diesel oil and gasoline. Given the estimation procedure described above, this led to slightly increased figures for the 2004-2010 amounts of diesel oil and gasoline used as well as changes in the over-all activity data of NFR 1.A.4.c ii.

Furthermore, the stronger changes in 2011 AD result from the rountine revision of the latest National Energy Balance.

Table 4: Newly implemented consumption data for biodiesel, in [TJ]

1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Submission 2014 0 0 0 0 0 0 429 1,039 1,408 2,140 2,418 3,582 3,330 3,450
Submission 2013 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Table 5: Revision of diesel oil consumption estimates 2004-2011, in [TJ]

1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Submission 2014 64,892 56,723 55,135 53,049 52,121 51,396 49,782 47,500 48,338 47,906 48,909 52,008 51,341 52,626
Submission 2013 64,892 56,723 55,135 53,049 52,121 51,396 49,777 47,457 48,306 47,858 48,874 51,967 51,303 51,278
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 43 32 48 35 40 38 1.348
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.01% 0.09% 0.07% 0.10% 0.07% 0.08% 0.07% 2.63%

Table 6: Newly implemented consumption data for bioethanol, in [TJ]

1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Submission 2014 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 29 62 58 81 74 97 94
Submission 2013 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Table 7: Revision of gasoline consumption estimates 2004-2011, in [TJ]

1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Submission 2014 3,889 4,329 4,294 4,273 4,294 4,294 4,298 4,231 4,267 4,267 4,216 2,579 2,518 2,286
Submission 2013 3,889 4,329 4,294 4,273 4,294 4,294 4,294 4,203 4,215 4,230 4,161 2,498 2,410 2,395
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 27 51 38 55 81 109 -109
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.08% 0.65% 1.22% 0.89% 1.32% 3.25% 4.52% -4.56%

Table 8: Resulting revision of over-all fuel consumption 2004-2011, in [TJ]

1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Submission 2014 68,781 61,049 59,429 57,322 56,415 55,689 54,513 52,798 54,074 54,370 55,623 58,242 57,286 58,455
Submission 2013 68,781 61,049 59,429 57,322 56,415 55,690 54,072 51,660 52,522 52,088 53,035 54,465 53,713 53,674
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 442 1,138 1,553 2,283 2,588 3,777 3,574 4,782
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.82% 2.20% 2.96% 4.38% 4.88% 6.93% 6.65% 8.91%

Compared to submission 2013, all emission factors remain unchanged. - As, in addition, similar EFs are applied for diesel oil/biodiesel and gasoline/bioethanol respectively, changes within this NFR sector's the over-all emission estimates result solely from revised AD.

Furthermore, the implementation of tier1 EF for exhaust heavy metal and B[a]P emissions from [5] and for PCDD/F from [3] resulted in new emission estimates for this sector.

For information on the impacts on 1990 and 2011 emission estimates, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 11.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS 2009) [7]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

As this improvement had to be postponed in submission 2014, particulate matter emissions from gasoline combustion will be provided for the first time with submission 2015, based on EF from (EMEP/EEA 2013) [5].

In addition, in order to consolidate the applied emission factors, a broad revision of the reporting of B[a]P and PAH 1-4 emissions is planned for all off-road mobile sources.

FAQs

Why are similar EF applied for estimating exhaust heavy metal emissions from both fossil and biofuels?

The EF provided in (EMEP/EEA 2013) [5] represent summatory values for (i) the fuel's and (ii) the lubricant's heavy-metal content as well as (iii) engine wear. Here, there might be no heavy metal contained the biofuels. But since the specific shares of (i), (ii) and (iii) cannot be separated, and since the contributions of lubricant and engine wear might be dominant, the same emission factors are applied to biodiesel and bioethanol.


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2013: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/DE/daten-und-fakten/bilanzen-1990-2011/bilanzen-1990-2011.html, (Aufruf: 21.02.2014), Köln, Berlin.
2. BAFA, 2013: Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/energie/mineraloel_rohoel/amtliche_mineraloeldaten/index.html, (Aufruf: 28.11.2013), Eschborn.
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5. EMEP/EEA 2013: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013
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7. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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