1.A.3.b.iv Exhaust Emissions from Motorcycles and Mopeds

Last updated on 04 Dec 2014 08:38 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-categories 1.A.3.b iv - Road transport: Mopeds & motorcycles emissions from fuel combustion in Motorcycles and Mopeds are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by1)
1.A.3.b iv Mopeds & Motorcycles T3 NS CS CO by L

1 T = key source by Trend / L = key source by Level

Method

Activity data

Specific consumption data for mopeds and motorcycles are generated within TREMOD [2]. - The following table provides an overview of annual amounts of gasoline fuels consumed by motorized two-wheelers in Germany.

Table 1: Annual fuel consumption of mopeds and motorcycles, [TJ]

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Mopeds 4,940 3,910 2,864 2,373 3,283 3,443 3,324 3,182 3,373 3,370
Motorcycles 17,110 16,675 16,488 16,911 12,575 13,233 14,136 14,905 15,052 15,668
TOTAL 22,049 20,585 19,352 19,283 15,858 16,675 17,460 18,087 18,426 19,038
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Mopeds 3,134 3,041 2,809 2,905 3,140 3,159 3,282 3,248 3,356 3,436
Motorcycles 16,003 16,215 17,109 16,600 16,949 16,977 16,791 13,616 13,948 14,252
TOTAL 19,137 19,256 19,918 19,506 20,089 20,136 20,073 16,864 17,304 17,689
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Mopeds 3,304 3,439 3,427
Motorcycles 14,352 14,872 14,843
TOTAL 17,656 18,311 18,271

source: TREMOD 5.4 [2]

For information on mileage, please refer to sub-chapters on emissions from tyre & brake wear and road abrasion.

Emission factors

The majority of emissions factors for exhaust emissions from road transport are taken from the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 3.1) [1] where they are provided on a tier3 level mostly and processed within the TREMOD software used by the party [2] . Therefore, it is not possible to display them in a clear and comprehendible table.

For heavy-metal exhaust-emissions other then lead from leaded gasoline, default emission factors from (EMEP/EEA 2013) [3] have been applied for the first time.

NOTE: Due to lack of better information, similar emission factors are applied to fossil diesel oil and biodiesel as well as fossil gasoline and bioethanol, respectively.

Trend discussion for Key Categories

NFR 1.A.3.b iv - Exhaust Emissions from Motorcycles and Mopeds is no key source.

Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)

Since 1990, exhaust emissions of NMVOC have decreased due to technical improvements.

Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

As for the entire road transport sector, the trends for sulphur dioxide (SO2) exhaust emissions from two-wheelers shows charcteristics very different from those shown above: Here, the strong dependence on increasing fuel qualities (sulphur content) leads to an cascaded downward trend of SO2 emissions , influenced only slightly by increases in fuel consumption and mileage.

Total suspended particles (TSP)

Particle (TSP) emissions reported here result from the use of leaded gasoline only, therefore decreasing stronlgy until the ban of leaded gasoline in 1997.

Recalculations

Compared to submission 2013, recalculations were carried out due to a routine revision of the TREMOD software and the revision of several National Energy Balances (NEB). As stated above, the revision of the estimation model for CNG and LPG has been finalised.

Here, activity data were revised within TREMOD due to the provision of the final NEB 2011 and, regarding natural gas, the revision of NEBs as of 2005. In addtion, some re-allocations of consumption shares between the different vehicle types and classes were conducted, with the 1.A.3.b fuel totals remaining unchanged.

Table 2: Revision of fuel consumption data

1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
NFR 1.A.3.b iv TOTAL
Submission 2014 22,049 16,675 19,137 19,256 19,918 19,506 20,089 20,136 20,073 16,864 17,304 17,689 17,656 18,311
Submission 2013 22,049 16,675 19,137 19,255 19,907 19,485 20,059 20,136 20,091 16,898 17,355 17,757 17,754 17,982
absolute change 0 0 0 1 10 20 31 0 -18 -34 -51 -68 -97 329
relative change 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% -1% 2%
Mopeds
Submission 2014 4,940 3,443 3,134 3,041 2,809 2,905 3,140 3,159 3,282 3,248 3,356 3,436 3,304 3,439
Submission 2013 4,940 3,443 3,134 3,041 2,809 2,906 3,140 3,159 3,281 3,246 3,353 3,433 3,305 3,315
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 3 0 124
relative change 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 4%
Motorcycles
Submission 2014 17,110 13,233 16,003 16,215 17,109 16,600 16,949 16,977 16,791 13,616 13,948 14,252 14,352 14,872
Submission 2013 17,110 13,233 16,003 16,214 17,098 16,580 16,919 16,977 16,811 13,652 14,002 14,324 14,449 14,667
absolute change 0 0 0 1 10 20 31 0 -20 -36 -54 -72 -97 205
relative change 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% -1% -1% 1%

In addition, the inventory, for the first time, includes heavy-metal exhaust emissions based on default emission factors from EME/EEA 2013 [3]

For pollutant-specific information on qualitative and quantitative impacts on 1990 and 2011 emission estimates see chapter 11. Recalculations and the following chapters.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS 2009) [4]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors for all 1.A.3.b sub-categories were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

Besides the routine revision of TREMOD, no sector-specific improvements are planned.

FAQs


Bibliography
1. INFRAS, 2011: Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport, version 3.1 (Handbuch Emissionsfaktoren des Straßenverkehrs 3.1) URL: http://www.hbefa.net/e/index.html - Dokumentation, Bern, January 2011
2. ifeu, 2013: Knörr, W. et al., IFEU - Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH: Fortschreibung des Daten- und Rechenmodells: Energieverbrauch und Schadstoffemissionen des motorisierten Verkehrs in Deutschland 1960-2030, sowie TREMOD 5.4, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Berlin.
3. EMEP/EEA 2013: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013
4. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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