1.A.3.b.iii Exhaust Emissions from HDV

Last updated on 04 Dec 2014 08:38 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-categories 1.A.3.b iii - Road transport: Heavy duty vehicles emissions from fuel combustion in Heavy Duty Vehicles (HDVs) are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by1)
1.A.3.b iii Heavy Duty Vehicles (incl. Buses) T22, T3 NS CS NOx (L/T), PM2.5 (L/T), PM10 (T)

1 T = key source by Trend / L = key source by Level
2 T2: only for petroleum where activity data exist only on tier2 level

Method

Activity data

Specific consumption data for heavy-duty vehicles (trucks and lorries) and buses are generated within TREMOD [2]. - The following tables provide an overview of annual amounts of fuels consumed by these vehicles in Germany.

LKW.PNG

Table 1: Annual fuel consumption of trucks and lorries, in [TJ]

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Diesel oil 412,472 451,893 502,258 525,686 548,492 573,257 567,371 583,761 620,779 668,627
Biodiesel 0 0 0 0 0 894 1,203 2,176 2,477 3,273
TOTAL 412,472 451,893 502,258 525,686 548,492 574,151 568,575 585,938 623,256 671,900
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Diesel oil 677,678 631,835 610,952 583,902 560,714 525,480 540,200 522,224 529,284 516,901
Biodiesel 7,508 9,638 11,304 16,216 19,586 34,991 64,984 69,648 52,511 41,435
TOTAL 685,185 641,473 622,255 600,118 580,301 560,471 605,184 591,872 581,794 558,337
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Diesel oil 561,251 567,561 591,559
Biodiesel 42,709 39,257 41,423
TOTAL 603,960 606,817 632,982
bus.PNG

Table 2: Annual fuel consumption of buses, in [TJ]

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Diesel oil 62,591 55,151 59,929 62,883 61,200 62,816 62,495 62,028 63,180 63,928
Biodiesel 0 0 0 0 0 98 133 231 252 313
Petroleum 0 0 0 473 559 610 638 357 637 637
CNG 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 62,591 55,151 59,929 63,356 61,759 63,524 63,266 62,616 64,069 64,878
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Diesel oil 63,177 58,456 54,884 50,649 48,450 46,439 45,180 41,315 41,489 44,083
Biodiesel 700 892 1,015 1,407 1,692 3,092 5,435 5,510 4,116 3,534
Petroleum 0 0 0 0 0 904 1,286 1,454 1,507 1,618
CNG 414 471 472 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 64,291 59,819 56,371 52,055 50,143 50,435 51,901 48,280 47,112 49,234
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Diesel oil 44,927 42,556 45,935
Biodiesel 3,419 2,943 3,217
Petroleum 1,593 1,486 1,489
CNG 0 0 0
TOTAL 49,939 46,985 50,640 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

For information on mileage, please refer to sub-chapters on emissions from tyre & brake wear and road abrasion.

Emission factors

The majority of emissions factors for exhaust emissions from road transport are taken from the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 3.1) [1] where they are provided on a tier3 level mostly and processed within the TREMOD software used by the party [2] . Therefore, it is not possible to display them in a clear and comprehendible table.

For heavy-metal exhaust-emissions other then lead from leaded gasoline, default emission factors from (EMEP/EEA 2013) [3] have been applied for the first time.

NOTE: Due to lack of better information, similar emission factors are applied to fossil diesel oil and biodiesel as well as fossil gasoline and bioethanol, respectively.

Trend discussion for Key Categories

NFR 1.A.3.b iii - Exhaust emissions from heavy duty vehicles is key source for emissions of

  • NOx regarding level and trend,
  • PM2.5 regarding level and PM10 regarding level and trend.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

Until 2005, NOx emissions followed mileage and fuel consumption. Since 2006, in contrast to nearly unchanged fuel consumption, emissions have decreased due to controlled catalytic-converter use and engine improvements resulting from continual tightening of emissions laws.

Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and carbon monoxide (CO)

Since the early 1990s, exhaust emissions of NMVOC and carbon monoxide have decreased due to catalytic-converter use and engine improvements resulting from ongoing tightening of emissions laws and improved fuel quality.

Ammonia (NH3) and sulphur dioxide (SO2)

As for the entire road transport sector, the trends for sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ammonia (NH3) exhaust emissions from heavy duty vehicles show charcteristics different from those shown above: Here, the strong dependence on increasing fuel qualities (sulphur content) leads to an cascaded downward trend of SO2 emissions , influenced only slightly by increases in fuel consumption and mileage. For ammonia emissions the increasing use of catalytic converters in gasoline driven cars in the 1990s lead to a steep increase whereas both the technical development of the converters and the ongoing shift from gasoline to diesel cars resulted in decreasing emissions in the following years.

Particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

As for all reported exhaust PM emissions from mobile diesel vehicles the party assumes that nearly all particles emitted are within the PM2.5 range, resulting in similar emission values for PM2.5, PM10 , and TSP.

Recalculations

Compared to submission 2013, recalculations were carried out due to a routine revision of the TREMOD software and the revision of several National Energy Balances (NEB). As stated above, the revision of the estimation model for CNG and LPG has been finalised.

Here, activity data were revised within TREMOD due to the provision of the final NEB 2011 and, regarding natural gas, the revision of NEBs as of 2005. In addtion, some re-allocations of consumption shares between the different vehicle types and classes were conducted, with the 1.A.3.b fuel totals remaining unchanged.

Table 3: Revision of fuel consumption data of heavy-duty vehicles

1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Trucks and lorries
Submission 2014 412,472 574,151 685,185 641,473 622,255 600,118 580,301 560,471 605,184 591,872 581,794 558,337 603,960 606,817
Submission 2013 412,472 574,151 685,185 641,473 622,252 600,110 580,288 560,473 605,587 592,539 582,535 558,124 603,904 609,045
absolute change 0 0 0 0 4 8 13 -2 -403 -667 -741 212 56 -2.228
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% -0.07% -0.11% -0.13% 0.04% 0.01% -0.37%
Buses
Submission 2014 62,591 63,524 64,291 59,819 56,371 52,055 50,143 50,435 51,901 48,280 47,112 49,234 49,939 46,985
Submission 2013 62,591 63,524 64,291 59,819 56,371 52,055 50,141 49,530 52,405 47,940 46,537 49,659 50,967 47,942
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 906 -504 339 576 -424 -1.029 -957
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1.83% -0.96% 0.71% 1.24% -0.85% -2.02% -2.00%

Within the finalised revision of the CNG and LPG data, tier3 emission factors have been applied to the entire time series now, resulting in recalculations from 2005 onwards. - In addition, the inventory, for the first time, includes heavy-metal exhaust emissions based on default emission factors from EME/EEA 2013 [3]

For pollutant-specific information on qualitative and quantitative impacts on 1990 and 2011 emission estimates see chapter 11. Recalculations and the following chapters.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS 2009) [4]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors for all 1.A.3.b sub-categories were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

Besides the routine revision of TREMOD, no sector-specific improvements are planned.

FAQs


Bibliography
1. INFRAS, 2011: Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport, version 3.1 (Handbuch Emissionsfaktoren des Straßenverkehrs 3.1) URL: http://www.hbefa.net/e/index.html - Dokumentation, Bern, January 2011
2. ifeu, 2013: Knörr, W. et al., IFEU - Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH: Fortschreibung des Daten- und Rechenmodells: Energieverbrauch und Schadstoffemissionen des motorisierten Verkehrs in Deutschland 1960-2030, sowie TREMOD 5.4, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Berlin.
3. EMEP/EEA 2013: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013
4. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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