1.A.3.b.ii Exhaust Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles

Last updated on 04 Dec 2014 08:38 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-categories 1.A.3.b ii - Road transport:Light duty vehicles emissions from fuel combustion in Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs) are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by1)
1.A.3.b ii Light duty vehicles T3 NS CS NOx (L), PM2.5 (L/T), PM10 (T)

1 T = key source by Trend / L = key source by Level

Method

Activity data

Specific consumption data for light-duty vehicles (LDV) are generated within TREMOD [2]. - The following table provides an overview of annual amounts of fuels consumed by LDV in Germany.

Table 1: Annual fuel consumption of light duty vehicles, in [TJ]

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Diesel oil 22,864 27,948 33,466 42,109 48,845 54,117 59,392 64,968 70,609 75,792
Biodiesel 0 0 0 0 0 84 126 242 282 371
Gasoline 23,875 23,351 22,242 19,817 15,254 14,526 14,074 13,891 13,517 13,731
Bio-Ethanol 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
LPG 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CNG 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 46,739 51,300 55,708 61,925 64,099 68,727 73,592 79,101 84,408 89,894
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Diesel oil 77,909 81,682 85,682 85,597 87,332 87,273 84,531 84,954 86,402 86,492
Biodiesel 863 1,246 1,585 2,377 3,051 5,811 10,169 11,330 8,572 6,933
Gasoline 13,311 12,063 11,481 10,406 9,586 8,951 8,001 7,372 6,287 5,803
Bio-Ethanol 0 0 0 0 10 61 115 100 120 166
LPG 0 0 0 0 0 0 193 303 337 459
CNG 0 0 0 0 0 316 450 663 858 1,027
TOTAL 92,084 94,991 98,748 98,380 99,980 102,413 103,459 104,721 102,577 100,880
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Diesel oil 85,464 86,223 84,834
Biodiesel 6,504 5,964 5,940
Gasoline 5,336 5,024 4,663
Bio-Ethanol 206 206 207
LPG 415 437 470
CNG 1,090 1,107 1,142
TOTAL 99,015 98,961 97,255

For information on mileage, please refer to sub-chapters on emissions from tyre & brake wear and road abrasion.

Emission factors

The majority of emissions factors for exhaust emissions from road transport are taken from the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 3.1) [1] where they are provided on a tier3 level mostly and processed within the TREMOD software used by the party [2] . Therefore, it is not possible to display them in a clear and comprehendible table.

For heavy-metal exhaust-emissions other then lead from leaded gasoline, default emission factors from (EMEP/EEA 2013) [3] have been applied for the first time.

NOTE: Due to lack of better information, similar emission factors are applied to fossil diesel oil and biodiesel as well as fossil gasoline and bioethanol, respectively.

Trend discussion for Key Sources

NFR 1.A.3.b ii - Exhaust emissions from light duty vehicles is key source for emissions of

  • NOx regarding the emissions' level,
  • PM2.5 regarding the emissions' level and trend, and
  • PM10 regarding the emissions' trend.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

NOx emissions increased steadily until 2002 following the shift to diesel engines. During the last ten years, emissions decline steadily due to catalytic-converter use and engine improvements resulting from ongoing tightening of emissions laws and improved fuel quality.

Particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

Starting in the middle of the 1990s, a so-called "diesel boom" began, leading to a switch from gasoline to diesel powered passenger cars. As the newly registered diesel cars had to meet the EURO2 standard (in force since 1996/'97) with a PM limit value less than half the EURO1 value, the growing diesel consumption was overcompensated qickly by the mitigation technologies implemented due to the new EURO norm. During the following years, new EURO norms came into force. With the still ongoing "diesel boom" those norms led to a stabilisation (EURO3, 2000/'01) of emissions and to another strong decrease of PM emissions (EURO4, 2005/'06), respectively. Over-all, the increased consumption of diesel in passenger cars was overastimated by the implemented mitigation technologies.

Recalculations

Compared to submission 2013, recalculations were carried out due to a routine revision of the TREMOD software and the revision of several National Energy Balances (NEB). As stated above, the revision of the estimation model for CNG and LPG has been finalised.

Here, activity data were revised within TREMOD due to the provision of the final NEB 2011 and, regarding natural gas, the revision of NEBs as of 2005. In addtion, some re-allocations of consumption shares between the different vehicle types and classes were conducted, with the 1.A.3.b fuel totals remaining unchanged.

Table 2: Revised consumption data

1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Diesel oil
Submission 2014 22,864 54,117 77,909 81,682 85,682 85,597 87,332 87,273 84,531 84,954 86,402 86,492 85,464 86,223
Submission 2013 22,864 54,117 77,909 81,682 85,683 85,599 87,335 87,273 84,454 84,865 86,289 86,360 85,409 88,029
absolute change 0 0 0 0 -1 -2 -2 0 78 89 112 132 55 -1.805
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.09% 0.10% 0.13% 0.15% 0.06% -2.05%
Biodiesel
Submission 2014 0 84 863 1,246 1,585 2,377 3,051 5,811 10,169 11,330 8,572 6,933 6,504 5,964
Submission 2013 0 84 863 1,246 1,585 2,377 3,051 5,811 10,159 11,318 8,561 6,923 6,499 6,120
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 12 11 11 4 -156
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.09% 0.10% 0.13% 0.15% 0.06% -2.55%
Gasoline
Submission 2014 23,875 14,526 13,311 12,063 11,481 10,406 9,586 8,951 8,001 7,372 6,287 5,803 5,336 5,024
Submission 2013 23,875 14,526 13,311 12,063 11,481 10,406 9,587 8,951 7,994 7,367 6,285 5,803 5,342 5,139
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 5 2 0 -6 -116
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.09% 0.06% 0.03% 0.00% -0.11% -2.25%
Bio-Ethanol
Submission 2014 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 61 115 100 120 166 206 206
Submission 2013 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 61 115 100 120 206 211
absolute change 10 51 54 -16 21 46 0 -5
relative change 501.43% 87.60% -13.60% 20.82% 37.98% -0.11% -2.43%
LPG
Submission 2014 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 193 303 337 459 415 437
Submission 2013 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 155 256 316 444 406 447
absolute change 38 47 22 15 9 -10
relative change 24.45% 18.35% 6.88% 3.35% 2.13% -2.17%
CNG
Submission 2014 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 316 450 663 858 1,027 1,090 1,107
Submission 2013 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 61 115 100 120 166 1,126 1,230
absolute change -10 255 334 563 738 861 -36 -123
relative change -100.00% 414.30% 290.12% 565.83% 614.07% 519.22% -3.22% -9.97%

Within the finalised revision of the CNG and LPG data, tier3 emission factors have been applied to the entire time series now, resulting in recalculations from 2005 onwards. - In addition, the inventory, for the first time, includes heavy-metal exhaust emissions based on default emission factors from EME/EEA 2013 [3]

For pollutant-specific information on qualitative and quantitative impacts on 1990 and 2011 emission estimates see chapter 11. Recalculations and the following chapters.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS 2009) [4]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors for all 1.A.3.b sub-categories were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

Besides the routine revision of TREMOD, no sector-specific improvements are planned.

FAQs


Bibliography
1. INFRAS, 2011: Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport, version 3.1 (Handbuch Emissionsfaktoren des Straßenverkehrs 3.1) URL: http://www.hbefa.net/e/index.html - Dokumentation, Bern, January 2011
2. ifeu, 2013: Knörr, W. et al., IFEU - Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH: Fortschreibung des Daten- und Rechenmodells: Energieverbrauch und Schadstoffemissionen des motorisierten Verkehrs in Deutschland 1960-2030, sowie TREMOD 5.4, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Berlin.
3. EMEP/EEA 2013: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013
4. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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