1.A.3.b.i Exhaust Emissions From Passenger Cars

Last updated on 04 Dec 2014 08:38 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-categories 1.A.3.b i - Road transport: Passenger cars emissions from fuel combustion in Passenger Cars (PCs) are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by1)
1.A.3.b i Passenger Cars T12, T3 NS CS NOx (L/T), NMVOC (L/T), CO (L/T), PM2.5 & PM10 (L/T), Pb(T), Cd (T)

1 T = key source by Trend / L = key source by Level
2 T1: only for natural gas where activity data exist only on tier1 level

Method

For all fuels despite natural gas, emissions are calculated within TREMOD, using a tier3 approach.
AD for natural gas is not yet implemented within TREMOD. Hence, emissions have been calculated separately using a tier1 approach.

Detailed information on the methods applied is provided in the main chapter on 1.A.3.b - Road Transport.

Activity data

Specific consumption data for passenger cars are generated within TREMOD [2]. - The following table gives an overview of annual amounts of the fuels consumed by passenger cars in Germany.

Table 1: Annual passenger car fuel consumption, in [TJ]

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Diesel oil 237,993 250,182 257,849 277,110 273,524 273,823 275,322 268,829 268,226 288,688
Biodiesel 0 0 0 0 0 427 584 1,002 1,070 1,413
Gasoline 1,284,554 1,288,348 1,302,535 1,311,517 1,245,524 1,268,780 1,268,344 1,265,509 1,268,521 1,267,833
Bio-Ethanol 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
LPG 138 137 229 184 184 138 115 106 106 100
CNG 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 1,522,686 1,538,668 1,560,613 1,588,811 1,519,232 1,543,169 1,544,365 1,535,446 1,537,923 1,558,034
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Diesel oil 289,341 325,443 354,324 358,204 414,434 419,428 412,129 425,495 445,449 467,463
Biodiesel 3,205 4,964 6,556 9,948 14,477 27,929 49,577 56,747 44,194 37,472
Gasoline 1,204,607 1,167,999 1,134,983 1,079,078 1,043,066 963,428 903,045 868,971 830,735 806,227
Bio-Ethanol 0 0 0 0 1,112 6,618 13,017 11,737 15,883 23,034
LPG 94 98 607 694 1,887 2,357 4,412 8,639 15,315 23,383
CNG 0 0 0 0 0 1,907 2,710 3,728 4,779 5,798
TOTAL 1,497,247 1,498,504 1,496,470 1,447,924 1,474,976 1,421,667 1,384,892 1,375,317 1,356,355 1,363,377
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Diesel oil 476,421 500,912 498,469
Biodiesel 36,254 34,647 34,905
Gasoline 769,080 765,190 717,501
Bio-Ethanol 29,714 31,365 31,796
LPG 21,408 23,176 24,121
CNG 6,085 6,178 6,303
TOTAL 1,338,963 1,361,467 1,313,095

Here, the following charts underline the ongoing shift from gasoline to diesel-powered passenger cars, that started around 1999/2000.

For information on mileage, please refer to sub-chapters on emissions from tyre & brake wear and road abrasion.

Emission factors

The majority of emissions factors for exhaust emissions from road transport are taken from the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 3.1) [1] where they are provided on a tier3 level mostly and processed within the TREMOD software used by the party [2] . Therefore, it is not possible to display them in a clear and comprehendible table.

For heavy-metal exhaust-emissions other then lead from leaded gasoline, default emission factors from (EMEP/EEA 2013) [3] have been applied for the first time.

NOTE: Due to lack of better information, similar emission factors are applied to fossil diesel oil and biodiesel as well as fossil gasoline and bioethanol, respectively.

Trend discussion for Key Categories

NFR 1.A.3.b i - Exhaust emissions from passenger cars is key source for emissions of

  • NH3 regarding level and trend,
  • NOx regarding level and trend,
  • NMVOC regarding level and trend,
  • CO regarding level and trend,
  • PM2.5 and PM10 regarding level and trend

Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon monoxide (CO)

Since 1990, exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxides, NMVOC, and carbon monoxide have decreased sharply due to catalytic-converter use and engine improvements resulting from ongoing tightening of emissions laws and improved fuel quality.

Ammonia (NH3) and sulphur dioxide (SO2 )

As for the entire road transport sector, the trends for sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ammonia (NH3) exhaust emissions from passenger cars show charcteristics very different from those shown above: Here, the strong dependence on increasing fuel qualities (sulphur content) leads to an cascaded downward trend of SO2 emissions , influenced only slightly by increases in fuel consumption and mileage. For ammonia emissions the increasing use of catalytic converters in gasoline driven cars in the 1990s lead to a steep increase whereas both the technical development of the converters and the ongoing shift from gasoline to diesel cars resulted in decreasing emissions in the following years.

Particulate Matter (PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

(from fuel combustion only; no wear/abrasion included)

Starting in the middle of the 1990s, a so-called "diesel boom" began, leading to a switch from gasoline to diesel powered passenger cars. As the newly registered diesel cars had to meet the EURO2 standard (in force since 1996/'97) with a PM limit value less than half the EURO1 value, the growing diesel consumption was overcompensated qickly by the mitigation technologies implemented due to the new EURO norm. During the following years, new EURO norms came into force. With the still ongoing "diesel boom" those norms led to a stabilisation (EURO3, 2000/'01) of emissions and to another strong decrease of PM emissions (EURO4, 2005/'06), respectively. Over-all, the increased consumption of diesel in passenger cars was overastimated by the implemented mitigation technologies. The table below shows the evolution of the limit value for particle emissions from passenger cars with diesel engines.

Table: EURO norms and their effect on limit values of PM emissions from diesel passenger cars

exhaust emission standard (EURO norm) Euro 1 Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 4 Euro 5 Euro 6
in force for type approval since: 1 Jul 1992 1 Jan 1996 1 Jan 2000 1 Jan 2005 1 Sep 2009 1 Sep 2014
in force for initial registration since 1 Jan 1993 1 Jan 1997 1 Jan 2001 1 Jan 2006 1 Jan 2011 1 Jan 2015
resulting PM limit value in [mg/km] 180 80/1001 50 25 5 5

1 for direct injection engines

Recalculations

Compared to submission 2013, recalculations were carried out due to a routine revision of the TREMOD software and the revision of several National Energy Balances (NEB). As stated above, the revision of the estimation model for CNG and LPG has been finalised.

Here, activity data were revised within TREMOD due to the provision of the final NEB 2011 and, regarding natural gas, the revision of NEBs as of 2005. In addtion, some re-allocations of consumption shares between the different vehicle types and classes were conducted, with the 1.A.3.b fuel totals remaining unchanged.

Table 2: Revised consumption data

1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Diesel oil
Submission 2014 237,993 273,823 289,341 325,443 354,324 358,204 414,434 419,428 412,129 425,495 445,449 467,463 476,421 500,912
Submission 2013 237,993 273,823 289,341 325,443 354,328 358,211 414,445 419,428 411,927 425,082 445,073 466,908 475,645 500,680
absolute change 0 0 0 0 -3 -7 -11 1 203 412 376 555 775 232
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.05% 0.10% 0.08% 0.12% 0.16% 0.05%
Biodiesel
Submission 2014 0 427 3,205 4,964 6,556 9,948 14,477 27,929 49,577 56,747 44,194 37,472 36,254 34,647
Submission 2013 0 427 3,205 4,964 6,556 9,948 14,477 27,929 49,553 56,692 44,156 37,428 36,195 34,809
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 24 55 37 44 59 -163
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.05% 0.10% 0.08% 0.12% 0.16% -0.47%
Gasoline
Submission 2014 1,284,554 1,268,780 1,204,607 1,167,999 1,134,983 1,079,078 1,043,066 963,428 903,045 868,971 830,735 806,227 769,080 765,190
Submission 2013 1,284,554 1,268,780 1,204,607 1,168,000 1,134,993 1,079,098 1,043,096 963,428 903,034 868,942 830,687 806,160 768,981 765,712
absolute change 0 0 0 -1 -10 -20 -30 0 11 29 48 66 99 -523
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.01% 0.01% 0.01% -0.07%
Bioethanol
Submission 2014 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,112 6,618 13,017 11,737 15,883 23,034 29,714 31,365
Submission 2013 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,112 6,618 13,017 11,737 15,882 23,032 29,711 31,443
absolute change 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 4 -77
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.01% 0.01% 0.01% -0.25%
LPG
Submission 2014 138 138 94 98 607 694 1,887 2,357 4,412 8,639 15,315 23,383 21,408 23,176
Submission 2013 138 138 94 569 607 694 1,887 2,357 4,450 8,686 15,336 23,398 21,417 23,392
absolute change 0 0 0 -471 0 0 0 0 -38 -47 -22 -15 -9 -216
relative change 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% -82.78% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% -0.85% -0.54% -0.14% -0.06% -0.04% -0.92%
CNG
Submission 2014 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,907 2,710 3,728 4,779 5,798 6,085 6,178
Submission 2013 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,843 2,676 2,321 3,099 3,533 5,970 6,584
absolute change 0 0 -936 35 1,407 1,680 2,265 115 -406
relative change -32.94% 1.29% 60.63% 54.22% 64.09% 1.93% -6.17%

Within the finalised revision of the CNG and LPG data, tier3 emission factors have been applied to the entire time series now, resulting in recalculations from 2005 onwards. - In addition, the inventory, for the first time, includes heavy-metal exhaust emissions based on default emission factors from EME/EEA 2013 [3]

For pollutant-specific information on qualitative and quantitative impacts on 1990 and 2011 emission estimates see chapter 11. Recalculations and the following chapters.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland" by (ifeu & INFRAS 2009) [4]. - For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors for all 1.A.3.b sub-categories were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

Besides the routine revision of TREMOD, no sector-specific improvements are planned.

FAQs


Bibliography
1. INFRAS, 2011: Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport, version 3.1 (Handbuch Emissionsfaktoren des Straßenverkehrs 3.1) URL: http://www.hbefa.net/e/index.html - Dokumentation, Bern, January 2011
2. ifeu, 2013: Knörr, W. et al., IFEU - Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH: Fortschreibung des Daten- und Rechenmodells: Energieverbrauch und Schadstoffemissionen des motorisierten Verkehrs in Deutschland 1960-2030, sowie TREMOD 5.4, im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, Berlin.
3. EMEP/EEA 2013: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2013
4. ifeu & INFRAS, 2009: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH und INFRAS Zürich: Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland, FKZ 360 16 023, Heidelberg & Zürich.
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